Skip to main content

Full text of "Gazetteer of Ulwur"

See other formats




S: P K 











gallanivne fJrrss. 



Page 19, line 15 from top, for " Huchdwan," read " Kucbawan." 

20, 3 from bottom, for " Samral," read " Samrat." 

23, 7 from top, for " Before his death," read " Before his death, in 

in the year of turmoil, 1857." 

31, 21 for " tree," read " trees." 

., 32, 36 for " Phythanthus," read " Phyllanthus." 

36, 9 for " Bubbul," read " Bulhul." 

37, 20 for " Mathra," read " Mathura." 

39, 24 for " Chauhdm," read " Chauhdn." 

52, 13 omit stop after " Baldeo." 

59, 24 for " Lds Das," read " Ldl Dds." 

61, 13 for " Dadoi," read " Dadu." 

66, 2 from bottom, for " dekhai," read " dekhat." 

67, 10 omit comma between " Nakh, Sakh." 

95, 24 for " this property," read " the property.'' 

97, 15 for " acres," read " bighas." 

105, 2 for " Silthet," read " Silhet." 

127, ,, 14 from top, for "the area, &c., see page 191," read "present 
rent rates and Revenue, see pages 187 and 189." 

136, 21 from bottom, for " 191," read " 189." 

139, 28 for " 191," read " 189." 

140, at bottom, for " 191," read " 189." 

,,142, 13 from bottom, for "191," read" 189." 

144, 30 for " 188, 192," read " 187, 189." 

154, 11 from top, for " Alwar," read " Ulwur." 

160, 9 for " partly in," read " partly in Kater." 

162, 14 from bottom,/or " tahsis," read " tahsils." 

196, 9 for " Banisrdwab," read " Bainsrdwat." 

197, 9 for " Kahan," read " Kalian." 

197, 8 for " Kahir," read " Kabir." 

,,198, 7 from top, /or " Dasapra," read " Dasahra." 

198, 11 from bottom, for " 88," read " 98." 





THE present territory of the Ulwur State, which is 3024 square miles in 

g extent, and contains a population of about 800,000, is composed of several 

tracts called the Raht, the Wai, portions of Narukhand or the Naruka 

03 country, of the Rajawat country, and of Mewdt. It lies S.W. of Dehli, 

3 its nearest point being about thirty-five miles distant from that city. 

The Raht lies on the north-west border. It is the country of Chauhan 
Rajputs, the head of whom claims to be the living representative of the 
famous Pirthwi Raj, king of Dehli, who fell in battle with the invading 

The Wai is on the western border, and is occupied chiefly by Rajputs 
of the Shekhawat clan, which is BO important in the adjoining State of 

The Rajawat country, in the south-west, was the territory of the once 
powerful Rajawat Rajputs of Jaipur. 

Narukhand, in the south-east, was held by the Naruka Rajputs. More 
regarding these small tracts will be found under " Districts," and a general 
description of the State at the beginning of Part II. 

The city of Ulwur, which is situated near the centre of the State, is in 
Mewat, of which it is now the largest and most important town. More 
than half the territory of the State, too, is in Mewat. The famous hills 
and strongholds of Mewtlt are in the part now included within the limits 
of Ulwur. In that portion, too, has usually been for many centuries the 

t of its Government. An historical sketch of Ulwur must, then, begin 
T with some notice of this tract. 

^ The ancient country of Mewat may roughly be described as contained 
within a line running irregularly northwards from Dig in Bhartpur to 
about or somewhat above the latitude of Rewari, then westwards below 
Rewari to the longitude of a point six miles west of the city of Ulwur, 



( 2 ) 

nnd then south to the Bdrah stream in Ulwur. The line then turning east- 
wards, would run to Dig, and approximately form the southern boundary 
of the tract. 

The Mewat country possesses several hill ranges. Those under which 
lie the city of Ulwur and those which form the present boundary to the 
north-east were the most important. Tijara, lying near the latter, con- 
tended with Ulwur for the first place in Mewat* 

The mass of the population of Mewdt are called Meos ; they are Musal- 
mans, and claim to be of Rajput extraction (see Meos). They must not, 
however, be confounded with the Mewatti chiefs of the Persian historians, 
who were, probably, the representatives of the ancient Lords of Mewat. 
These Mewattis were called Khdnzadas (see Khanzadas), a race which, 
though Musalman like the Meos, was and is socially far superior to the 
Meos, who have no love for them, but who in times past have united with 
them in the raids and insurrections for which Mewdt was so famous, and 
which made it a thorn in the side of the Dehli emperors. In fact, the 
expression " Mewatti " usually refers to the ruling class, while " Meo " 
designates the lower orders. The latter term is evidently not of modern 
origin, though it is not, I believe, met with in history, and the former is, 
I think, now unusual, " Khdnzada" having taken its place. 

Mewat is repeatedly mentioned by the bard Chand in the Pirthwi Rdj 
Rdsa. Mahesh, Lord of Mewdt (Mendtpatti)^ is described as doing homage 
to Bisaldeo Chauhan of Ajmir in s. 821 (A.D. 764), and his descendant 
" Mungal " was conquered by the famous Pirthwi Raj of Dehli. Mungal 
and Pirthwi Raj married sisters, who were daughters of the Dahima Rajput, 
Chief of Biana, whose fort was afterwards so celebrated in Mughal history. 

That these Lords of Mewat were of the Jadii Rajput clan, would 
appear from the fact that local tradition declares it, and from converted 
Jddiis being called by the old Musalman historians " Mewdttis,"f a term 
Chand applies to a Mewdt chief of the Lunar race, of which race the Jddii 
Maharaja of Karauli calls himself the head (see page 3, note f). 

The earliest mention of Mewat by the Musalman historians, so far as 
I can ascertain, is in the Tarikh Firoz Shdhi, where its control by the 
Emperor Shamsuddin Altamsh, who died in A.D. 1235, is alluded to.J 
Some years after that date, Ghiyasuddin Balban, before he came to the 
throne, and when Governor of Hdnsi and Rewari, distinguished himself in 
expeditions against the inhabitants of Mewdt. After the accession of 
Balban in A.D. 1265, he felt the repression of the plunderers of Mewat to 
be the first of his duties. Owing to the neglect of those in power, they 
had become very troublesome indeed ; and, aided by the density and extent 
of the jungles, which reached to the city of Dehli, they made raids 
even to the walls, and the gates had to be shut at afternoon prayer, 

* Elliot's Mus. Hist., vol. iv. p. 273. -f Blochman's Aiu-i-Akbari, vol. i. p. 334. 

1 1bid., vol. iii. p. 104. Brigg's Translation of Farishta, voL i. p. 249. 

( 3 ) 

after which hour no one ventured out. At night they prowled into the 
city, and the inhabitants felt very insecure. The Emperor organised an 
expedition against the Mewattis, of whom large numbers were put to the 
sword. Police posts were established in the vicinity of the city, and 
placed in charge of Afghdns, with assignments of land for maintenance, 
and the army being supplied with hatchets, cleared away the woods round 
Dehli. The tract thus cleared was considerable, and became well cul- 
tivated.* This operation of Balban's seems to have been so effectual that 
there is little mention of Mewdt for a hundred years, during which the 
chiefs of Mewat appear to have maintained satisfactory relations with the 
authorities at Dehli. For after the death of Emperor Ffroz Shah in 1 388, 
we find Bahadar Ndhar Mewdtti, whose stronghold was at Kotila or 
Kotal in the Tijdra hills, occupying the place of a powerful noble at 
Dehli. This Bahddar Ndhar, a Jadii Rdjput by birth, is the reputed 
founder of the Khauzada race, which became so renowned in the history 
of the empire, f 

In conjunction with the household slaves of Ffroz Shah, Bahadar 
Ndhar aided Abubakar, grandson of the late Emperor Firoz, in expelling 
from Dehli Abubakar's uncle Ndsiruddin, and in establishing the former 
on the throne. In a few months, however, Abubakar had to give way 
before Ndsiruddin, and he then fled to Bahddar Ndhar's stronghold, 
Kotila, where he was pursued by Ndsiruddin. After a struggle Abubakar 
and Bahddar Ndhar surrendered, and Abubakar was placed in confinement 
for life, but Bahddar Ndhar received a robe and was allowed to depart. 
Two years later, the Emperor being ill, Bahddar Ndhar plundered the 
country to the gates of Dehli, but Nasiruddin, before he had quite re- 
covered from his illness, hastened to Mewdt and attacked Kotila, from 
whence Bahddar Ndhar had to fly to Jhirka, a few miles to the south in 
the same range of hills, and remarkable for its springs. 

In A.D. 1392, the Emperor Nasiruddin died, and Bahddar Ndhar, allied 
with one Mallii Yakbal Khan, held the balance between two rival claim- 
ants of the throne. | He would not allow either to gain an advantage 
over the other, so that for three years there were two emperors residing 
in the city of Dehli. 

* See Brigg's Farishta, vol. i. 255, and Musalman Historians, vol. iii. p. 104. 

t In speaking of Hasan Khan, the Mewdtti or Khanzdda Chief who was Bdbar's great 
opponent, one Musalman historian states that his family had enjoyed regal power up to the 
time of Firoz Shah, when Bahadar Ndhar flourished. Tradition tells of old Jddii chiefs of 
Tijara, in the neighbourhood of which we first hear of the Khdnzada family. Bdbar, how- 
ever, says that Hasan Khan's ancestors had governed Mewdt in uninterrupted succession 
for nearly two hundred years ; evidently dating the importance of the family from the time 
of Bahddar Ndhar. It is therefore most probable that Bahadar Ndhar was a member of a 
royal but fallen Jddii family, as the Khdnzddas themselves relate (see page 40), and that he 
or his father became a Musalman to gratify the Emperor Firoz and obtain power. 

J Brigg's Farishta, vol. i. p. 471 to 481, and Musalmau Historians. 

( 4 ) 

Several historians, including the great conqueror himself, make pro- 
minent mention of the conduct of Bahddar Nahar during the invasion of 
Timurlang in A.D. 1398. Timur states that he sent an embassy to Ba- 
iu'ular Nahar at Kotila, to which a humble reply was received. Bahddar 
Nahar sent as a present two white parrots which had belonged to the late 
Emperor. Timur remarks that these parrots were much prized by him. 
Subsequently Bahddar Ndhar and his son, together with others who had 
taken refuge in Mewat, came to do homage to Timur. Amongst these 
was Khizar Khan, who so ingratiated himself with the Mughal that, after 
the departure of the latter, he, calling himself Timur's viceroy, became 
virtually emperor of Hindustan, and mention is made of his besieging 
Bahadar Nuliar in Kotila, which he destroyed, and compelled the Mewattia 
to take refuge in the mountains, A.D. 1421.* 

This is the last mention of Bahddar Nahar, who seems to have played 
a prominent part on the political stage for more than thirty years. The 
range of hills where he had established himself was peculiarly well suited 
for defence (see Tijdra), and on them he and his family seem to have had 
a series of strongholds, the ruins of which are still considerable. 

The viceroy, Khizar Khdn, was succeeded in A.D. 1421 by Saiyad 
Mubdrak, who, in A.D. 1424, ravaged rebellious Mewdt. The Mewattfs 
" having laid waste and depopulated their country," took refuge in the 
mountains of <4 Jahra,"f a place which was so strong that the Emperor 
had to return to Dehli without taking it. A year after he again marched 
against Mewdt, when Jallii and Kaddu,t grandsons of Bahadar Ndhar, 
and several Mewattis who had joined them, pursued the tactics adopted 
the previous year, and after laying waste their own territories, took up a 
position at Indor in the Tijara hills, ten miles north of Kotila. After 
resisting for some days, they were driven from Indor, which the Emperor 
destroyed. The insurgents retreated to the mountains of Ulwur, the 
passes of which they defended with much obstinacy, but eventually they 
had to surrender. These repeated expeditions against the Mewattis did 
not render them quiet, and four months after the attack on Ulwur the 
Emperor had again to send troops against them. These troops carried 
fire and sword throughout the whole of Mewat, which, however, remained 
a place of refuge to escaped prisoners. 

In A.D. 1427, the Emperor, after putting to death Kaddii Mewatti 
above mentioned, sent troops into Mewdt, the inhabitants of which as 
usual abandoned their towns and fled to the mountains. Jallii (Bahddar 

* Brigg's Farishta, vol. i. p. 495, and Musalmau Historians, vol. iii. p. 449, and vol. iv. 
pp. 35, 53. 

t No doubt Tijara, the initial letter of which was omitted. 

J I can find, local tradition notwithstanding, historical mention of only one son of 
Bahadar Ndhar who seems to have been of any account. This was Mubdrak Khdn, who, 
when acting with his father's old ally Mallu Yakbal Khan, was assassinated by him. 

Brigg's Farishta, vol. i. p. 518, and Mus. Hist., vol. iv. p. 61. 

( 5 ) 

Ndhar's grandson), with Ahmad Khati and Malik Fakaruddin, who pro- 
bably belonged to the same family, collected a force within the fort of 
Ulwnr, and defended it so bravely that the imperial commander had to 
accept a war contribution and return to Dehli.* 

In A.D. 1428, the Emperor again marched to Mewat, and for a time at 
least subdued the country, obliging the inhabitants to pay him tribute. 
Rewad is spoken of as being in the hands of a Mewatti chief. 

In A.D. 1450, Bahlol Lodi acceded to the imperial throne. His first 
military movement was against Mewat. Ahmed Khan Mewattf, who held 
the country "from Mahrauli to Ladhii Sarai," near Dehli, submitted to 
the imperial force and was deprived of seven " parganahs " (subdivisions 
of districts), but was permitted to hold the remainder as tributary. Ah- 
med Khan appointed his uncle Mubarak Khan to be perpetually in attend- 
ance at court as his representative. During Bahlol's struggle with the 
king of Jaunpur,f Ahmed Khan Mewatti for a time supported the latter, 
and his conduct brought him another visit from the Emperor, to whom he 
was induced to submit. But Babar tells us that Mewdt was not included 
in the kingdom of Bahlol Lodi, who never really subjected it.J 

In A.D. 1488 Sikandar Lodi sat upon the throne of Dehli. At this 
period Tijdra was the seat of an Imperial Governor, and a Mewatti or 
Khdnzada, Alain Khan, was one of his distinguished officers. 

In A.D. 1526 a new power appeared in India. Babar, who claimed to 
be the representative of Timur Lang, after winning the battle of Panipat, 
took possession of Dehli and Agra ; and determined that his enterprise 
should not be a mere raid like Timur's, but the foundation of a new and 
lasting empire. Then it was that the Rajputs made their last great struggle 
for independence. They were led by Rana Sankha, a chief of Mewdr, 
who invited the Mewatti chief, Hasan Khan, to aid the nation from which 
he had sprung in resisting the new horde of Musalmans from the north. 

The political position of Hasan Khan at this time was a very important 
one. Babar, in his autobiography, speaks of him as the prime mover in 
all the confusions and insurrections of the period. He had, he states, 
vainly shown Hasan Khan distinguished marks of favour, but the affec- 
tions of the infidel lay all on the side of the Pagans i.e., the Hindoos ; 
and the propinquity of his country to Dehli, no doubt, made his opposition 
especially dangerous. Hasan Khan's seat at this time was at Ulwur, but 
local tradition says that he was originally established at Bahddarpur, 
eight miles from Ulwur, which was then in the possession of the Nikunipa 
Rajputs. || Babar's great victory over the Rajputs and Mewattis at Fatahpur 

* Brigg's Farishta, vol. i. p. 521. 

t Ibid., vol. i. p. 553, and Mus. Hist 

t Mus. Hist., vol. iv. p. 2(3:!. 

Brigg's Farishta, vol. i. p. 566 ; Mus. Hist., vol. v. p. 97. 

|| lu five of the six lists of the thirty-six royal races of Itdjputs collected by Colonel 

( 6 ) 

Sikri relieved him of further difficulty with respect to Mewdt, where he 
proceeded immediately after the battle. Hasan Khdn had either fallen in 
the struggle or he had immediately afterwards been murdered by a servant 
instigated by his relations. Bdbar " advanced four marches from Fatah- 
pur Sikri, and after the fifth encamped six kos from the Fort of Ulwur, 
on the banks of the River Manisni."* A messenger from Hasan Khan's 
son, Ndhar Khdn, arrived begging for pardon, and on receiving an assur- 
ance of safety, Nahar Khdn came to Bdbar, who bestowed on him a " par- 
gana" of several lacs (of dams, of which forty go to the rupee), for his 

Bdbar states that " Hasan Khan's ancestors had made their capital at 
Tijara," but when he came to Mewat, Ulwur was the "seat of Govern- 
ment." The conqueror bestowed the city of Tijara, which he still desig- 
nates " the capital of Mewat," on a follower named Chin Timiir Sultan, 
with fifty lacs of dams. Fardi Khan, who had commanded the right 
flank in the battle of Fatahpur Sikri, received charge of the Fort of 
Ulwur. Babar himself visited and examined the Fort, where he spent a 
night, f and the treasure in which he bestowed on his son Humaiyiin. 

The political power of the Khanzada chiefs of Mewat was now per- 
manently broken, aud they do not again appear, like Bahadar Nahar and 
Hasan Khan, as the powerful opponents or principal allies of emperors. 
There was a regular succession of Mughal Governors or Fort Commandants 
of Ulwur and Tijara; stone causeways were run across the hills in the 
neighbourhood of Kotila and Tijara ; and the anecdotes of Lai Das, a re- 
ligious reformer half Hindu, half Musalman who flourished in Mewat in 
the time of Akbar and Shah Jahan, are full of oppressions, practised not 
by local potentates settled in the country, but by Mughal officers. The 
Khanzadas still retained local importance, which, as will be subsequently 
shown, did not quite disappear until the present century. The extent 
of the territory they once held is pretty well indicated by the Musalman 
historians, existing traditions, and local remains. Rewari was at times 

Tod the name " Nikumpa " appears ; but Tod could find out nothing of the history of the 
Nikumpa.race, except that they preceded the Sesodias at Mandelgarh in Mewar. Had hia 
inquiries extended to Ulwur, he would have discovered that local tradition declares the 
Nikumpa to have been the earliest possessors of the town and fort of Ulwur, and of the 
surrounding territory. Khilora, an important village in Ramgarh, is said to have be- 
longed to them, and the first erection of the fort of Indor is attributed to them. The 
ruling Nikumpa family is said to have sprung from the no longer existing village of Ab- 
haner, the site of which lies about nine miles north of Ulwur in the Dehra valley, a locality 
in other respects remarkable (see Religion, page 53). According to a local rhyme they 
removed from Abhaner to Dadikar, which is situated deeper in the hills, and somewhat 
nearer Ulwur. At Dadikar, Chand Rai Nikumpa is said to have assumed the title of 

* The Bdrah or Riiparel. It is called " Mahnus Nye " in Thorn's plan of the battle of 

t Mus. Hist., vol. iv. pp. 202-273. 

held by them, at Sonah in Gurgaom, not far from Tijara, considerable 
tombs and ruins now existing are attributed to them, and the Khanzadas 
themselves declare that they held 1484 kheras (towns and villages), 
extending over all Mewat. However, a comparison of their genealogies 
and records with the Persian histories seems to show that little depend- 
ence is to be placed on the former, though, no doubt, they indicate 
general facts. 

Soon after Babar's death, his successor, Humaiyun, was in A.D. 1540 
supplanted by the Pathan Sher Shah, who, in A.D. 1545, was followed by 
Islam Shah. During the reign of the latter a battle was fought and lost 
by the Emperor's troops at Ffrozpur Jhirka, in Mewat, on which, however, 
Islam Shah did not loose his hold. 

An inscription on a fine tank in the Ulwur Fort states that it had 
been constructed by Chand Kazi, Governor of the Fort (Hakim Killa), 
under orders from Islam Shah, and that it was completed in H. 958 (A.D. 

Adil Shah, the third of the Pathdn interlopers, who succeeded in 
A.D. 1552, had to contend for the Empire with the returned Humaiyun. 
Adil Shah had been established on the throne by Hemii, an extra- 
ordinarily able and brave man, of a trading or baniya caste, called 
Dhiisar, whom I mention as he was a native of Macheri in the present 
Ulwur territory, and then apparently included in Mewat. Hemii is 
perhaps the greatest of that class of men who, though sprung from the 
trading order, are often the most valiant and reliable soldiers and admi- 
nistrators in Native States. He is said to have been originally a weigh- 
man in the bazaar, and after his rise he not only enabled Adil Shah to 
triumph over those who first opposed him, but when the Mughals re- 
appeared he resisted them successfully, and was regarded by them as the 
most formidable of their foes. It seems probable that he would have 
succeeded in finally defeating the invaders, but that he was mortally 
wounded when winning a victory at Panipat. Before his death he was 
taken before the young Akbar and Bairam Khan. The latter tried to 
induce the Emperor to slay him with his own hand, and when he refused, 
Bairam Khan killed him himself. A force was sent into Mewat to take 
possession of Hemii's wealth, which was there together with his family, 
and also to reduce Haji Khan, a slave of the late Emperor Sher Shah, 
but a brave and able general. He was setting up pretensions to rule in 
Ulwur, but he did not venture to resist Akbar's troops, and fled to 
Ajmir. At Macheri, however, where Hemii's family resided, there was 
much resistance before it was captured. Hemii's father was taken alive, 
and his conversion attempted. The attempt failed, and he was put to 

In these struggles for the restoration of Babar's dynasty Khanzadas 

* Mus. Hist, vol. iv. p. 484. 

( 8 ) 

apparently do not figure at all. Humaiyun seems to have conciliated 
them by marrying the elder daughter of Jamdl Khan, nephew of Babar's 
opponent, Hasan Khan, and by causing his great minister, Bairam Khan, 
to marry a younger daughter of the same Mewdtti. Mirza Hinddl, brother 
of Humaiyun, had been placed in charge of Mewdt after the death of 
Babar, and when contending with Humaiyun he is once spoken of as 
having retired to Ulwur, where he was in security. This was before 
Humaiyuu's expulsion.* After Akbar's return, Bairdm Khan, when 
offended, once left the court and went to Ulwur, whence he was induced 
to return. But though the hills of Mewat may have been attractive 
to the great discontented nobles of the empire, the people of Mewdt seem 
to have been quiet enough, and the Khdnzddas to have become distinguished 
soldiers in the imperial armies. f 

* Mus. Hist., vol. iv. p. 295, vol. v. pp. 189, 202. 
t Blochman's Ain-i-Akbari, vol. i. p. 391. 

( 9 ) 


MEWAT, when reduced to subjection, yielded a revenue of 169,81,000 
taiikas * to Babar, who includes it in his list of conquered states. It 
appears from the " Ain-i-Akbari " that the country was divided into two 
" Sirkdrs," or districts, Ulwur and Tijdra. Both pertained to the Siibah, 
or province of Agra; but the term " Mewdt" did not officially disappear, 
as faujdars of Mewdt continued to be appointed. The office was sometimes 
held with the Siibah of Dehli. 

The Sirkar of Ulwur contained 43 Mahdls or subdivisions, which 
comprised 1612 villages, having an area of 2,457,410 bighas (1,535,881 
acres), and yielding a revenue of 5,924,232 dams, Rs. 1,48,105. The 
Mahdls were as follow : 

(1.) Ulwur. 

(2.) Dehra, situated within the limits of the present Tahsfl of Ulwur. 

(3.) Dadikar, 




(4.) Baha'darpur, 




(5.) Mungana, 




(6.) Pinan, 



do. Rajgarh. 

(7.) KbUaura, 



do. Ramgarh. 

(8.) Jalalpur, 



do. Lachmangarb. 

(9.) Bahroz, 



do. Mandawar. 

(10.) Rata, 



do. Kishengarh. 

(11.) Nogaon, 



do. Raingarb. 

(12.) Rasgan, 



do. Rdmgarb. 

(13.) Harsana, 



do. Lachmangarh. 

(14.) Maujpur, 




(15.) Ghat, 




(16.) Hasanpur Khori, 



(17.) Balehta, 



do. Ulwur. 

(18.) Bharkol, 




(19.) Bhajera, 




(20.) Umran, 




(21.) Hajipur, 



do. Bansur. 

(22.) Deoti, 



do. Rajgarh. 

(23.) Kohrana, 



do. Bahror, 

* Presumably Sikandari tankas, or Rs. 8,490,50. See Thomas Pathan's Kings of Dehli, 
p. 391. 

t Blochman's Translation of Xin-i-Akbari, p. 493. 


( 10 ) 
situated within the limits of the present Tahsil of Ramgarh. 




(24.) Mubarikpur, 
(25.) Baroda Meo, do. 
(26.) Ismallpur, do. 
(27.) Khairtal, do. 
(28.) Harsauli, do. 
(29.) Toda Bhil, 
(30.) Antela Bhalera, 
(31.) Bairat, 
(32.) Balhar, 

(33.) Baroda Tatali Khan, 
(34.) Ghata, or Lfsana, 
(35.) Hasanpur Mundawar, 
(36.) Kiyara, alias Bhangarh, 
(37.) GhatPiran, a/t'osRampur, 
(38.) MandaorA, 
(39.) Bbitwaii, 
(40.) Bhadawar, 
(41.) Nahar Kho, 
(42.) Muhaniraadabad, 
(43.) Koladar, 

The Sirkar of Tijara was made up of 18 Mahals, containing 253 
villages, with an area of 200,976 bighas, or 125,600 acres, and yielding 
3,22,92,880 dams, or Us. 807,322. The Mahals were 

(1.) Tijara. 

(2.) Indor, in the present Tahsil of Tijara. 

Generally in Jaipur territory. 

(3.) Pur, do. 

(4.) Bambohra, do. 

(5.) Ghar Kd Thana, 

(6.) Ujfoa, 

(7.) UraraUmrl, 

(8.) Pfnagwan, 

(9.) Jhamrawat, 
(10.) Kbanpur, 
(11.) Sakras, 
(12.) Santhawari, 
(13.) FirozpurJhir, 
(14.) Tatahpur, 
(15.) Kotla, 
(18.) Kharera, 
(17.) Besuni, 
(18.) Nagina, 

do. Kishengarh. 



Generally in Gurgaom district of British territory. 

Akbar appears to have given some attention to Mewdt In H. 957 
(A.D. 1579), he visited Ulwur on his way to Fatahpur Sikri. 

Local tradition says that under his direction a turbulent class called 
Malliks, who were settled at Mungana, a few miles south of Ulwur city, 
was exterminated, and the present village of Akbarpur founded on the site 
of Mungana, which was destroyed. But no mention of this is made in the 

( 11 ) 

Persian history of Badaiini, although the historian was with Akbar on 
his visit to Ulwur.* These Malliks seem to have been Rajputs con- 
verted to Islam. There were traditions of them both in the north and 
east, as well as to the south of Ulwur, but none now survive. In fact, 
Mewat seems to have given the Mughal Government but little real 
trouble. Even tradition speaks of but one serious emeute on the part of 
the old rulers of the country. This is said to have occurred in Aurang- 
zeb's time, when Ikram Khdn Khanzada plundered the country and took 
from the Governor of Tijara his standard and kettledrum. But it is not 
pretended that Ikrdm Khan made himself really formidable (see Tijara). 

An old book f in the possession of one Hakiui Zakaria, of Ulwur, 
states that the famous Sawdi Jai Singh of Jaipur obtained Ulwur in 
jdgir from Auraugzeb. However, he was permitted to hold it for a few 
years only, because it was pointed out to the Emperor that the fort was 
too strong and too near Dehli to be left in the possession of the Jaipur 
Raja. The Emperor sent a person to make a plan of the Ulwur fort, 
which, after taking it out of the hands of Sawdi Jai Singh, he repaired 
and garrisoned with imperial troops. It would appear that Aurangzeb 
himself visited Ulwur, for the inscription on a mosque in the city notifies 
it was built by his order. 

About A.D. 1720, when Muhammad Shah was Emperor, Churaman, 
the first great Jdt freebooter, reached Tijara, plundering the country 
wherever he went (see Tijara). He does not seem to have effected a 
permanent lodgment; but between A.D. 1724 and 1763 the Jdts over- 
ran the country. They occupied Bdnsur, Hajipur, Rampur, Kishen- 
garh, Maudawar, Barod, Bahror, Karnikot, Tijara, and their progress 
was more especially marked between A.D. 1745 and 1763, when the energy 
of Surajmal, the grand-nephew of Churaman, directed them. After his 
death the Sikhs plundered in the Tijara district, from which the Jats 
were ousted by Najaf Kiili Khan, a converted Rahtor Rajput, and 
Jagirdar of Rewari, who had risen in the service of the imperial 
commauder-iu-chief, the famous Najaf Klidn. Kiili Khan \ tried to oust 

* At the time of Akbar's visit there was a celebrated saint, named Shekh Mubarak 
Mulaua, resident at Ulwur. A long story is told of how Akbar visited him, and was made 
to feel his miraculous power. One would have expected that the story would have had 
so much foundation as consists in an actual visit of Akbar to the shekh. But there is 
almost proof positive that it has not that foundation, tadauni was with Akbar, observing 
his proceedings. He had the highest veneration for the shekh, a sketch of whose life and 
the time of whose death he gives, and yet he says nothing of the visit, which, had it 
occurred, would have been one of the greatest events in the shekh's life, and which 
Badauni himself would have witnessed. 

t This old book, and a Tarikh Hind in the Raj library, specify the persons appointed 
to important office in Mewat from Aurangzeb's time to Badan Singh Jat's ; but a string 
of names can be of no value here. The officials were all Musalmau. 

Najaf Kulf Khan died at Kanound (now Patiala territory), where Appa Sahib 
besieged his widow. Ismail Beg came to her assistance, but was taken prisoner by the 
Marhattas, and eventually died in confinement at Agra. 

( 12 ) 

the Jdts from Kishengarh, hut failed, and Ismail Beg, also a celebrated 
Mughal leader, was sent by the Marhattas to supersede him. The two, 
however, played into each other's hands, and Ismail Beg held Tijara 
unmolested until the Marhattas, whom he had defied, came to oust him.* 
After fluctuations of fortune, Ismail Beg was finally defeated at Patan, 
near Kot Putli, and his army scattered. After this the Marhattas occu- 
pied Tijara, which some years after was again recovered by the Jats. 
The Jats, however, were usually more or less subject to Najaf Khan, who 
was, perhaps, the last of the great imperial officers, and whose dominion 
embraced all Mewat. 

The Narukas had now joined in the struggle for territory (A.D. 
1 770-75), f and the Jats, weakened by Najaf Khdn, could not resist them. 
At no time had either Jats or Marhattas held the small tract of country 
lying south of the towns of Ulwur and Ramgarh and known as Narukhand, 
or the abode of the Nariikas, and I must now trace the origin aud 
growth of this great sept, which at present rules the Ulwur State. 

* Keene's Mughal Empire, p. 193 ; arid Tijara Local History. The Marhattaa, under 
Sindiah, are once meutioned as retreating on Ulwur before Ismail Beg. _Skinner > s Life, 
vol. i pp. 47, 48. 

t Keene, p. 126. 


UDE KARAN, head of the Kachwuha tribe of Itajpiits, and Chief of the 
territory now known as Jaipur, took his seat on the " Cushion " in s. 
1424 (A.D. 1367). His eldest son, Bar Singh, was the ancestor of the 
present ruling house of Ulwur. Bar Singh was to have married a certain 
lady for whom his father in jest pretended a fancy. The joke gave Bar 
Singh deep offence. He insisted on Ude Karan taking his place as bride- 
groom, and to any son who might be born of the marriage he resigned 
his right to the " Cushion " after his father's death. 

Nahar Singh was the issue of the marriage, and, accordingly, he 
succeeded his father, while Bar Singh received only an estate of eighty-four 
villages, known as Jhak and Mozabad, or Maujabad, small towns twenty- 
five or thirty miles south-west of the city of Jaipur. 

Mairaj, Bar Singh's son, is said to have been at one time in posses- 
sion of Amer, then the capital town, where he constructed the Mahata 
Tank. Naru, son of Mairaj, did not retain Amer. He was supplanted 
by Chandar Sen in s. 1 527, and returned to Mozabad. Narii gave his 
name to the clan descended from him, and known as Nariika. He had 
five sons 

Ldldf ancestor of the Lalawat Nariikas, to which the Ulwur family 

Ddsd, ancestor of the Dasawat Nariikas, to which the Chief of Uniara 

and that of Lawa belong. 
Tejsfs descendants have villages in Jaipur, and village Hadirhera in 

Jeta's descendants had Pipal Khera in Govindgarh, and now have 

villages in Jaipur. 
Chitar's children hold Naitala Kaikari in Ulwur, a very small jagfr. 

Lala, the eldest, is said to have declined continuing the struggle for 
the Amer " Cushion," and his father consequently treated him as a 
younger sou, and in his lifetime consigned his own regal claims (jugrdj 
kiya) to the high-spirited Dasa, who also received most of his father's 
estate, Lala obtaining only Jhak and twelve villages. 

Lala, however, for the loyal spirit he displayed towards his chief, 
Bharat Mai, is said to have received from him the title of Rao and a 
banner (Nishan). His son, Ude Singh, served under Bharat Mai of 
Amer, and usually led the van of battle (harol). His son, Lar Khan, 
was much with the great MAu Singh, and is said to have received his 

( 14 ) 

title of Khan from the Emperor. Lar Khdu's son, Fateh Singh, had 
issue as follows : 

1. Rao Kalidn Singh. 

2. Karan Singh, whose descendant holds village Bahali of Rajgarh, 


3. Akhe Singh, whose descendant holds village Narainpur of 

Rajgarh, Ulwur. 

4. Ranchor Das, whose descendant holds village Tikel of Jaipur. 

Rao Kalian Singh appears to have been the first of the Lalawat 
Narukas to settle in the present Ulwur territory, but Dasawat Narukas 
were already established in the tract called Nariikhand, of which a portion 
now forms a part of Southern Ulwur territory (see " Aristocracy," page 
121). Kalidn Singh is said to have lost the old family estate of Jhak 
in supporting his Chief, Jai Singh, against a rival, and to have received 
Macheri, an estate which lay on the eastern border of the Nariikhand of 
the Dasawats, and which became included in that tract. His services, how- 
ever, were chiefly performed at Kama-, which had been bestowed on Sawai 
Jai Singh by Aurangzeb, and in the neighbourhood of which the Meos were 
troublesome. The government of Kama, now in Bhartpur, seems to 
have been regarded as difficult and important, for one or more of Sawai 
Jai Singh's own sons is said to have taken the place of Kalian Singh, who 
then returned to Macheri. It is probable that he continued to consider 
himself the rightful Jagirdar of Kama, the claim to which was revived by 
his descendant, Bakhtdwar Singh. One legend says he returned home 
in consequence of a prophetic rhyme addressed to him by a lady upon the 
funeral pile, whose directions he had solicited just before she became 
" Satf." 

" Jao has ab des men, Rao Kalianjl ap. 
Age kul men honge, partapik Partap." 

" Go, dwell in your own land, 

Rao Kalian. 

Of your house will hereafter be 
The fortunate Partap." 

The date of Kalian Singh's return to Mdcheri is given as Asoj Sudi doj 
s. 1728 A.D. (1671). Kalian Singh had six sous, of whom five had issue. 
Their seats are all, except Pai, situated in the present Ulwur territory, 
and were as follows : 

Mdcheri, founded or occupied by Rao Anand Singh, eldest sou and 

head of the family. 

Para, founded or occupied by Sham Singh. 
Pai, founded or occupied by Jodh Singh. Nizamatnagar in Ulwur 

is the present head seat. 
Kkora, founded or occupied by Amar Singh. 
Palrva, founded or occupied by Isri Singh. 

( 15 ) 

The sons of Kalidn Singh are said to have furnished eighty-four 
horses to the service of Jaipur. A horse represented about 200 culti- 
vated acres. 

The Macheri family split into two (see Genealogical Tree in Appendix); 
the head of the elder branch is now the Ulwur Chief. The head of the 
junior is the Thakur of Bijwtlr, who is, therefore, more nearly related to 
the Chief than the members of any of the other four families. Bijwar, 
Para, Pdi, Khora, and Palwa are known as the " panch thikanas " of 
Ulwur, and they and their offshoots together are spoken of as the " Bdra 
Kotri," a term which was borrowed from Jaipur, where it is applied to 
some families related to the Chief. It was Rao Anand Singh's two 
grandsons who divided the estate of Macheri. Rao Zorawar Singh, as 
head of the house, remained at Macheri. Zalim Singh received Bijwar. 

Zorawar Singh's grandson and second successor was Rao Partdp 
Singh, who developed his little estate of two and a half villages into a 
principality, and threw off allegiance to Jaipur. Partap Singh's energy 
and address seem early to have made him prominent in Jaipur.* He 
contended with the Nathdwat Thakur of Chomu for the highest place in 
Darbdr; he was ordered to coerce his turbulent brethren, the Nanikas of 
Unidrd, whose peace with the Jaipur chief was made by him. He was 
sent with Jaipur troops to relieve the fort of Ranthambor, the imperial 
garrison of which was besieged by Marhattas. At length his position or 
conduct excited jealousy at Jaipur, and a famous astrologer drew attention 
to the rings in his eyes, which are considered to indicate one destined to 
kingly dignity. His presence at Jaipur was in consequence thought dan- 
gerous to the Chief, and he had to fly for his life. At Rajgarh (in Ulwur), 
where he stopped, he is said to have met his brethren and to have enjoined 
them to remain faithful to their Chief, the Raja of Jaipur. He himself 
proceeded towards Dehli vid Dig, where he took service with the great Jit, 
Suraj Mai. After the latter's death, his son, Jawahir Singh, resolved to 
march to Pokhar through Jaipur territory ; and Partap Singh, still loyal 
to his Chief, quarrelled with Jawahir Singh on that account, left him, 
and returned to Jaipur, where his assistance was much desired. Jawahir 
Singh, who had the well-known Sumroo with his army, avoided the direct 

* The sketch of Partap Singh's career and of the origin of the Nanikas has been chiefly 
derived from a compilation by the late Diwan Jai Gopal, who was the best-informed of 
the old Ulwur officials ; and another by Sheo Bakhsh Bharait, one of the most intelligent 
of the Ulwur rhymers. The works most referred to by Sheo Bakhsh and Jai Gopal are a 
bansdoli, or clan history, of the Kachwaha, compiled under the direction of the Jaipur 
Tliakur of Chomu, a ballad on Partap Singh, called the " Part ap-ra-sa," written twenty- 
five years after the death of Partap Singh, and a second ballad bearing the same name, 
written in M. R. Banui Singh's time. However, the sketch has no pretension to 
accuracy, though probably the transactions in which Pailap Singh took a prominent part 
are fairly indicated, and the dates of his main successes are sufficiently recent to have 
been preserved by local tradition, impressed as they would have been on the minds of 
the people. 

( 16 ) 

route, and tried to make his way through Tonrawati, a hilly country 
thirty miles north of Jaipur. There Partap Singh counselled an attack, 
and the famous battle of Maonda was fought, in which the Jats were 
defeated. Sambat 1823 (A.D. 1766), Jawahir Singh retreated via Ulwur* 
to Bhartpur, pursued by the Jaipur forces under one Raj Singh, an artillery- 
man. Partap Singh, the victory, went straight to Jaipur, and ob- 
tained the Chief's permission to build a fort at Rajgarh, near Macherf. 
The site of the fort was, at Partap Singh's request, chosen, and the first 
matlock struck by Raj Singh, then returning from the pursuit of the 
Jats, and this Raj Singh is said to have subsequently led the Jaipur 
troops in attacking it.f 

This fort of Rajgarh was the first considerable stronghold possessed by 
Partdp Singh, who for some time after the battle of Maonda preserved 
friendly relations with his Chief. This appears from the fact of his going 
in charge of the Chief's heir when the latter went to be married at Bikanir 
in s. 1825 (Bikdnir Gazetteer, p. 62). Shortly after he seems to have 
practically set up for himself. He established relations with Mirza Najaf 
Khan (the well-known imperial general) and the Marhattas, and encouraged 
the people of the country to look to him as their protector. He estab- 
lished forts in s. 1827 (A.D. 1770), at Tahla and Rdjpiir, near Rajgarh, 
completed the fort of Rajgarh in s. 1828 (A.D. 1771), built or strengthened 
Mdla Khera fort between Ulwur and Rajgarh in s. 1829, Baldeogarh in 
s. 1830, Partapgarh in s. 1832, and about the same time Kankwari, Thana 
Ghdzi, and Ajabgarh, all in the south-west of the present territory. He 
also occupied other territory of Jaipur to the south-west, J which was, 
however, recovered by that State partly during the lifetime of Partdp 
Singh, partly during his successor's. Partap Singh at one time occupied 
territory up to the Sikar villages in Shekhawatti. With the Rao Raja of 
Sikar he formed an alliance, and, according to the Sikar account, enabled 
him to punish his troublesome neighbours of Kdnsli. 

The Ulwur fort was in the hands of the Jdts of Bhartpur, who at the 
time Partdp Singh's reputation was growing were reduced to great straits 
by Najibudaula, the imperial minister, and by Mirza Najaf Khan, the 
commander-in-chief of the imperial forces. The pay of the garrison was 
much in arrears, and the Jdt Chief made no pretence of ability to liquidate 
the debt. " Give the ruin to whom you will," he said, " I don't want 
it." The fort-commandant then invited Partdp Singh to take possession 
of the fort on condition that he paid the garrison what was due to them. 
Partap Singh was then at Kaukwdri (the least accessible of the Ulwur 
forts), and having accepted the terms, he came to Ulwur and entered the 
fort by the Lachman Pol gate, Mnngsar, Sudi 3, s. 1832 (Nov. 1875). 

* Keene's Moghul Empire, p. 82. 

t The name of the hill on which it was situated is Ba"grajkf Pahari. 

t Bairat, Piiigpura, Antela, Bhabra, Merh, Sital, Tala, Dhola, Garhria. 

( 17 ) 

Up to the taking of the Ulwur Fort, Partap Singh's brethren had not 
recognised him as their Chief, but now they began to do homage and present 
offerings (nazars). They seem to have been jealous of, or offended with, 
Sariip Singh, probably the principal Dasawat Nariika in Nanikhand, who 
held the forts of Ramgarh and Taur (now Lachmangarh), and opposed 
Partap Singh. One Andlia Naik pretended to desert with a party to Sariip 
Singh, and thus gaining admission to Taur, made Sariip Singh a prisoner, 
and brought him to Ulwur. Partap Singh received him in the fort, 
nnd ordered him to present a nazar. He refused, whereupon Partap 
Singh put him to death, by binding a strip of wetted buffalo's hide 
round his head, which, slowly contracting as it dried, burst his skull (bddk 
bandhwd diya). Sariip Singh's death placed Partap Singh in possession of 
more territory in Nanikhand, and, taking advantage of the depressed 
condition of the Jats, he, between s. 1832 and 1839, obtained Bahadar- 
pur, Dehra, Jhindoli, Bansiir, Bahror, Bdrod, Rampur, Harsaura, Hajipur, 
Hamirpur, Narainpur, Gadhi Marniir, Thana Ghazi. When Najaf Khan 
attacked Dig, s. 1832 (A.D. 1775), Partap Singh sent a force under one 
Khushali Ram Haldia to aid him, but disagreement arose, owing, it is said, 
to Najaf Khan's intention of invading Jaipur, which Partap Singh 
declared he would resist. One account says that Najaf Khan ordered 
Partap Singh to vacate the Ulwur Fort, or to pay tribute to the Emperor, 
and on his refusal, marched against him, and so the siege of Lachman- 
garh which is the subject of a ballad took place. The Marhattas aided 
Partap Singh, and after four months the siege was raised. When Najaf 
Khan abandoned the siege, Khushali Ram, above mentioned, remained 
with him as Partap Singh's Vakil. His brother, Daulat Ram, was also in 
Partap Singh's service, and the latter is said to have given both brothers 
deadly offence by cuffing Daulat Ram. In revenge they urged Najaf 
Khan to make a prisoner of Partap Singh when he, on invitation, came to- 
wards Dig to confer with Najaf Khan. Accordingly, the Musalman troops 
surrounded Partap Singh and his party at Rassia, near Nagar in Bhartpur. 
Partap Singh, who was engaged in worship when the surprise occurred, 
was induced by Thakur Mangal Singh of Khera, who had distinguished 
himself in the Lachmangarh campaign, to save himself, and, with such of 
his followers as could break through, he escaped to Lachmangarh. The 
Rassia attack is commemorated in an ironical couplet 

" Rassia wfili Dungri tujb ko sat ealam, 
Ure kasumbi pagrl, lajja rakbe Ram." 

" Rassia bill, seven times salutation, 
Tbeir red turbans flew off, may 

Ram save their honour." 

The Rassia affair is said to have occurred s. 1836 (A.D. 1779). 
Partap Singh was hard put to it for money, but he replenished his coffers 
by robbing a rich person at Thana Ghazi, and he plundered Baswa, a town of 

( 18 ) 

Jaipur, near Rajgarh. Daulat Ram, who had gone to Jaipur, again advised 
an attack on his old master, and in B. 1839, an army from Jaipur, headed 
by the Chief himself, whose name also was Partap Singh, approached 
Rajgarh. Partap Singh of Ulwur, declaring that he would go to meet 
(peshwdi) his Chief in due form, rode into the Jaipur camp, and, without 
attempting the life of the Raja, killed a buffalo near his tent, attacked and 
slew some of his old enemies, the Nathawats, and retreated to Rajgarh, which 
the Jaipur force failed to take, and Partap Singh having allied himself 
with the Marhattas, the Raja was reduced to great straits. Partap Singh, 
seeing his old Chief in difficulties, acted towards him, it is said, with 

Partap Singh's most trusted officials were Hoshdar Khan and Mian 
Jiwan Khan. The former was his agent with General Perron, Sindhia's 
famous French officer, and aided by Najaf Khan, he obtained for his 
master from the Emperor, at Dehli, the much-coveted insignia called " Mahi 
Maratib," which are preserved by the Ulwur Darbar with care, and still 
paraded on great occasions. His minister, Ram Sewak, is spoken of as 
aiding much in the acquirement of funds. Khushali Ram Haldia was 
murdered by direction of Partap Singh, whom he had abandoned,* but 
Partap Singh made terms with the Haldia family during the Jaipur attack 
on Rajgarh, and a member of it is now chief officer of the army. Partap 
Singh died in s. 1847 (A.D. 1791). Before his death, having no sons of 
his own, he selected an heir jn a curious manner. Any boy of " the twelve 
kotrfs," that is, any descendant of Kalian Singh, was held by him to be 
eligible, and in order to secure the best, he assembled his young kins- 
folk, probably eliminated those whose horoscopes were not promising, and 
finally selected Bakhtawar Singh of Thdna ; because, though a little child, 
he preferred a sword and shield to any of the toys which pleased the other 
boys. Bakhtawar Singh was not only far from being the nearest of kin 
to Partap Singh, but he was not even a scion of one of the five chief 
families. The Thana house to which he belonged was a junior branch of 
Para ; and a family precedent was thus established which was to have a 
lasting influence. 

Partdp Singh was a man of great ability and courage, and his personal 
prowess is much talked of. His mode of putting Sariip Singh to death, 
and his execution of an unfortunate slave-girl for peeping over a wall iu 
the Ulwur Fort, seem to indicate that he was rather a cruel man. It is 
remarkable how much the accounts of him dwell upon his natural loyalty 
and constant forbearance towards the Chief of his tribe, the Maharaja of 
Jaipur. The following is the list of parganahs Partap Singh is said to 

* In 1874, when I, as Settlement Officer, was inspecting villages in Lachmangarh, some 
Eaorias came to complain that they had been deprived of a certain village received in rent- 
free grant by an ancestor for distinguished service to the State. It turned out that this 
service was the murder of Kl.usbali Bam. 

( 19 ) 

have been in possession of at hia death : Ulwur, Mala Khera, Rajgarh, 
Rajpur, Lachmangarh, Gobindgarh, Pipal Khera, Ramgarh, Bahadarpur, 
Dehra, Jiudoli, Harsaura, Bahror, Barod, Bansiir, Rampur, Hajipur, Ham- 
irpur, Narainpur, Gadhi Mamiir, Thana Ghazi, Partapgarh, Ajabgarh, 
Baldeogarh, Tahla, Khunteta, Tatarpur, Sital (now in Jaipur), Gudha 
(now in Jaipur), Dubbi (now in Jaipur), Sikrai (now in Jaipur), Baori 
Khera (now in Jaipur). The revenue yielded by this territory is said to 
have been six or seven lakhs. 

Bakhtawar Singh succeeded in s. 1847 (A.D. 1791). At that time the 
Marhattas, invited by Dfwau Ram Sewak, an old official of Partap Singh, 
came to Rajgarh, and domestic difficulties were also caused by the same offi- 
cial. Consequently, Ram Sewak was enticed from Rajgarh, where he resided, 
to Ulwur, seized and put to death by direction of Bakhtawar Singh ; after 
which the Marhattas went away. In s. 1850, Bakhtawar Singh went to 
marry the daughter of the Thakur of Hiichawan in Marwar, and visited 
Jaipur on his way back. He was received in a friendly way, but the 
Jaipur Chief soon placed him under restraint, and it is said that he did 
not recover his liberty until he had resigned the forts of Giidha Sainthal, 
Baori Khera, Dubbi, and Sikrai, all now in Jaipur territory. 

Soon after his accession Bakhtawar Singh occupied Kama and other 
parganahs of Bhartpur, on the pretext that they were part of the jAgir 
of his ancestor, Kalian Singh. He held, too, for a time, Bawal, Kauti, 
Firozpur, and Kot Putli. 

On the present Bhartpur border the last Khauzadas of note possessed 
some territory. Zulfikar Khan, the principal, had a fort known as 
Ghasaoli, and had opposed the Ulwur Chief. About A.D. 1800, Bakhtawar 
Singh, aided by the Marhattas, expelled him, destroyed the fort, and 
established that of Gobindgarh near to its site. 

" At the commencement of the Marhatta war, he accepted the pro- 
tection of the British Government, with whom he entered into an offensive 
and defensive alliance. His astute vakil, Ahmad Baksh Khan, who 
afterwards became Nawab of Firozpur and Luharu, joined Lord Lake, to 
whom he rendered valuable services in procuring supplies for the army, in 
sending a small force from Ulwur to co-operate with it, and especially in 
supplying the information of the movements of the Marhattas which led 
to the victory of Laswari in A.D. 1803." The field of this battle is twenty 
miles east of the city of Ulwur. A full account of the battle will be fouud 
under " Laswari." 

As a reward for his services the district called Rath, in the north-west 
of the present Ulwur territory (see Rath), Hariana, and a portion of 
Mewat, were conferred on Bakhtawar Singh in 1803 (see Treaties in 

The British Government conferred Firozpur in Gurgaom on Ahmad 
Bakhsh Khan, the Vakil ; and his master, out of his own grant, gave him 
Luharu in Hariana, which, at Ahmad Baksh's request, was made, like 
Firozpur, independent of Ulwur. 

( 20 ) 

Some months afterwards the British Government allowed Bakhtawar 
Singh to exchange Hariana for the present Ulwur parganas of Kathuni- 
bar and Sonkhar in the south-east, and Tijara and Tapokra in the north- 
east. The Meos of his new territory, as well as those of his old, gave 
him much trouble. During the war between Jaipur and Marwar regard- 
ing Dhonkal Singh, Bakhtawar Singh is said to have assisted to maintain 
order in Jaipur. He, however, interfered there in such a manner as to 
attract the notice of the British Government, who, in A.D. 1811, obliged 
him " to bind himself not to enter into negotiations or engagements with 
other chiefs" (see Appendix). 

In A.D. 1812, he took possession of Dubbf and Sakrai, which Jaipur 
was said to have unfairly obtained from him, but which, being Jaipur 
territory at the time of his connection with the British Government, it 
was a breach of treaty to retake. He "refused to obey the orders of the 
Resident at Dehli to give them up. He collected a large number of his 
clansmen and others to oppose the force which was sent against him, and 
it was not until the British force arrived within sight of Ulwur that he 
was persuaded by those about him to agree to surrender the forts, and to 
pay three lakhs of rupees on account of the expenses of the expedition. 
About this time Bakhtawar Singh is said to have become deranged, 
the principal symptom of his malady being the cruel manner in which 
he vented his hatred against the Mahomedans. Wherever he caught 
a Fakir he is said to have given him the option of performing a 
miracle, or of having his nose and ears cut off. It is recorded that on one 
occasion he sent a pot full of noses and ears to Ahmad Bakhsh Khan, 
who had done him such good service, but with whom he had quarrelled. 
He also caused many Mahomedan tombs and mosques to be desecrated, 
turning the latter into Hindu temples." * 

These proceedings caused much excitement at Dehli, the Musalmans 
of which desired to invade Ulwur, but they were pacified by the Resident, 
who strove to restrain the Ulwur chief. 

Bakhtawar Singh is said to have behaved well to his brethren, none 
of whom he deprived of j&girs, though he kept his people in order, and 
severely punished those who offended. Ilahf Bakhsh, son of Partap 
Singh's minister, Hoshdar Khan, becoming presumptuous, gave great 
offence to the Chief; and though he escaped, six of his people took poison 
and died to save their honour in the Rajgarh Fort. Besides Dfwan Rain 
Sewak, he put to death for treachery another official of position called 
Shekh Ahsanullah. Thakur Samral Singh Kilianot, an old officer of 
Partap Singh's, became for some years his principal minister, and received 
the title of Raja Bahadar.f After his death Akhe Singh Bankawat 

* Administration Report of Captain Cadell for 1871-72, which I have subsequently 
quoted a great deal, and occasionally I have quoted the preface to Aitchison's " Ulwur 

t His grandson, Chinaman Singh, turned traitor in 1857, and caused the disaster of 

( 21 ) 

became the chief minister. Rao Har Narain Haldia, son of the traitor 
Daulat Ram, and grandfather of the present Fauj Bakhshi, or coramander- 
in-chief, and also Salig Ram and Nonid Ram, Sahawals, whose family still 
have a position, were officials of standing. 

Bakhtawar Singh died in A.D. 1815. At the time of his death the 
revenue of the state was about fifteen lakhs, but it was only eleven when 
he received the graut of territory from the British Government. Of this 
the new districts contributed three lakhs. They now pay more than double. 

After the death of Bakhtawar Singh the succession was disputed. 
Bakhtawar Singh, like his predecessor, had no sons of his own, but in- 
stead of examining all the boys of the " twelve kotrfs," after the fashion of 
Partap Singh, he sent for a lad named Banui Singh from his own original 
house of Thana, and indicated his intention of adopting him. He died 
before the formal ceremony was completed, but Banni Singh, then seven 
years old, was accepted as Raja by the Rajputs and artillery (Golanddz), 
headed by Akhe Singh Baukdwat, and an influential chela or household 
slave named Rarnii. Nawab Ahmad Bakhsh Khan, the powerful Vakil, 
and Salig Ram's son, backed by the three regular regiments of the army, 
supported the claims of an illegitimate son of the chief, named Balwant 
Singh, a boy of six, to share the State with Bannl Singh. Some influ- 
ential officials, as Har Narain and Nouid Rdm, seem to have been neutral, 
and when Banni Singh took his seat on the " gaddi," Balwant Singh was 
allowed to sit beside him on his left hand. It was said whilst they were 
children they should be like Ram and Lachman, and be treated as equal. 
The Resident at Dehli was induced to send khillats to each, " and it was 
arranged that the nephew should have the title, while the son exercised 
the power of the State. This arrangement, although sanctioned by the 
British Government, was never really acted upon. The affairs of the 
State were conducted, amidst constant squabbles, by Diwans until 1824, 
when a sanguinary fight took place between the rival factions, which re- 
sulted in victory to Banui Singh, who, with the aid of Akhe Singh, made 
Balwant Singh a prisoner." Ramii and Ahmad Bakhsh each tried to 
obtain for their respective parties the support of the Dehli Resident, " Sir 
David Ochterlony, who desired Banni Singh to settle a jagir of Rs. 15,000 
per annum on Balwant Singh, but the young Chief declined to do so," and 
Balwant Singh remained a prisoner for two years. Moreover, the life of 
Ahmad Bakhsh was attempted while he was a guest of the Resident at 
Dehli. The crime was traced to the instigation of persons at the Court 
of Ulwur, and the chief was required to surrender them, but it was not till 
1826, after the fall of Bhartpur and the advance of a British force on 
Ulwur, that the Chief complied." He was compelled to make "a pro- 
vision for Balwant Singh, partly in laud and partly in money, equivalent 
in value to the lands ceded to Ulwur by the British Government. Balwaut 
Singh died childless in 1845, when his possessions reverted to the State." 
" Baiini Singh had not succeeded to a peaceable inheritance. An old 

( 22 ) 

chronicle describes his people at that time ' as singularly savage and 
brutal, robbers by profession, never to be reformed or subdued/ but the 
Chief accomplished the difficult task of bringing them into comparative 
order." The Meos " were the most numerous as well as the most trouble- 
some of his subjects, aud it was not until after the infliction of signal chas- 
tisement, by burning their villages and carrying off their cattle, that he 
succeeded in subduing them." In order to render the large turbulent 
villages harmless he broke them up, compelling the inhabitants to dwell on 
their lands in a number of little hamlets (see Raghunathgarh and Nikach). 

" The government of the State had previously been carried on without 
system, but with the assistance of Ammujau and his two brothers," able 
Musalman gentlemen of Dehli, whom the Chief took into his service and 
made Diwans "about 1838, great changes were made. The land revenue 
had prior to that year been levied in kind, the State often claiming half 
the gross produce, plus a thirteenth of the remainder, on account of the 
expenses of collection " (see " Rent-rates"). Payments in coin were sub- 
stituted, and civil and criminal courts were established; but all the reforms 
which were introduced brought more into the pockets of the Diwans than 
into the State exchequer. 

"About A.D. 1851, enormous peculations were brought to light. The 
Diwans were imprisoned, but released on payment of seven lakhs, and it 
was not long before they regained their former power. The accounts of 
1850 show that the large sum of eleven lakhs was realised in that one year 
by fines imposed upon the officials." 

" Greatly as the ryots were oppressed during his reign of forty-two 
years, Banni Singh's name is cherished with the greatest reverence by the 
Rajputs. Even now, whenever they have any occasions for rejoicing, they 
exclaim, ' The days of Banni Singh have returned ! ' 

"Although by no means a well-educated man himself, he was a great 
patron of arts and letters, and attracted painters and skilled artisans from 
various parts of India to his service. He expended large sums of money 
on the collection of a fine library. For one book alone, a beautifully 
illuminated copy of the ' GulistanJ he paid Rs. 50,000." 

No tomb was " erected by his son to his memory, but he has left many 
splendid monuments to his name, such as a grand and extensive palace in 
the city, and a smaller but more beautiful one called the ' Moti DungriJ 
or * Banni BildsJ situated at a short distance from the town. 

" But his great work was the large * bandh ' or dam, built at Siliserh, 
ten miles from Ulwur, which forms a fine lake. Its water, brought into 
Ulwur by a masonry aqueduct, has changed the barren lands which pre- 
viously surrounded the town into a mass of luxuriant gardens. 

" Jealous of power, fond of state and ceremony, anxious to be just 
without sacrificing what he considered his interest at the shrine of justice ; 
at times generous to excess, at others niggardly; kindly dispositioned, 
but occasionally cruel, he was, on the whole, an excellent type of a good 

( 23 ) 

Native Chief of the past generation. His good deeds are remembered and 
his bad ones forgotten by the people, though some of the bad were bad 

" During the last five years of his life he suffered from paralysis, and 
was unable to exert the same control over affairs as previously, and the 
Diwans, in consequence, exercised almost uncontrolled power in the State. 

" Before his death he had an opportunity of proving his loyalty to the 
British Government. Bedridden as he was, he selected the flower of his 
army, and despatched a force consisting of about 800 infantry, 400 
cavalry, and four guns, to the assistance of the beleaguered garrison at 
Agra. The cavalry, among whom was the ' Khds ChaukiJ or Chief's per- 
sonal guard, were all Rajputs the remainder principally Mahomedans. 

" The Ni'mach and Nasirabad brigade of mutineers came upon them 
at Achnera, on the road between Bhartpur and Agra. Deserted by their 
leader and the Mahomedan portion of the force, including the artillery, 
the Rajputs suffered a severe defeat, leaving on the field fifty-five men, 
among whom were ten Sardars of note, whose heirs subsequently received 
khillats from Government. The old Chief was on the point of death when 
tidings of the disaster reached Ulwur ; but his reason had fled, and he was 
spared the sorrowful news. The last order he is said to have given in 
writing he having lost the use of his tongue was that a lakh of rupees 
should be sent down from the fort and sent out to his small force." 

The traitorous leader on this occasion was Raja Bahadur Chimman 
Singh, grandson of Samrat Singh Kalianot, mentioned above as a servant 
of Partap Singh. He is said to have been connected by marriage with 
some of the mutineers. 

Ramu, the faithful old chela, died in 1825. His son Mulla had 
established a great influence over the young Chief, and, on the whole, this 
influence was used for good, for he was kept under restraint, and com- 
pelled to acquire some education. But Mulla treated him sometimes with 
such indignity as to excite the anger of the Rajputs, and at last Akhe 
Singh had Mulla murdered, to the extreme grief and displeasure of Banui 
Singh, who expelled Akhe Singh from Ulwur. 

Banni Singh died in August 1857, and his only surviving son, 
Sheodau Singh, a boy of twelve, succeeded. The administration was in 
the hands of the Dehli Diwans, who also had acquired a great influence 
over the young Maharao Raja, and their position and conduct gave deadly 
offence to the Rajputs. The Chief adopted the Mahomedan style of dress 
and speech, and made no secret of his preference for the foreigners. At 
last, in August 1858, the discontent culminated in an insurrection of the 
Rajputs, and the Diwaus barely escaped with their lives. Captain Nixon, 
Political Agent of Bhartpur, immediately proceeded to Ulwur. He was 
met on the border by a body of Rajputs, headed by Thakur Lakdfr Singh 
of Bijwiir, who, though he had approved the emeute, had done his best to 
moderate the proceedings of the insurgents. 

( 24 ) 

Captain Nixon found the Chief " in an anguish of rage " with his 
brethren the Rajputs, whose action was held to have been the consequence 
of great provocation, and a Council of Administration was appointed, 
under the presidentship of Thakur Lakdir Singh. 

Captain Impey was appointed Political Agent of Ulwur in November 
1858. The Dehli Diwans, notwithstanding their reputation as adminis- 
trators, had failed at least latterly to maintain order, and Captain 
Impey found every department in utter confusion, and all his energy and 
persistency were necessary for the arrangement of affairs. " He had 
numerous difficulties to encounter in accomplishing this task," and the 
young Chief, in spite of his youth, thwarted him to the utmost. 

" The Council of Regency, formed by Captain Nixon immediately 
after the expulsion of the Musalmaus, did not work well, and was 
abolished by Captain Impey, who, after the crisis in 1859, managed for a 
short time without a Council. A new Council, consisting of five Thakurs, 
was constituted ; but in 1860, to borrow Captain Impey's words, ' its 
corruption had reached such a pitch as to frustrate every hope for even a 
decent administration.' Another Council was, therefore, formed, consisting 
of Thakur Lakdir Singh as president, and Thakur Nandji and Pundit 
Riip Narain as members. This Council carried on its duties in a most 
satisfactory manner until the Maharao Raja was invested with power on 
the 14th September 1863." Captain Impey left Ulwur about that time, 
and the Political Agency was shortly after removed. Subsequently, and 
until 1869, the Governor-General's agent for Rajputdna himself conducted 
the political business of the British Government with the Ulwur Darbar. 

Under Captain Impey's direction justice was well administered, and 
many other improvements were introduced. Information regarding the 
three-year settlement of the Laud Revenue and the subsequent ten-year 
settlement made by Captain Impey will be found in Appendix IV. 
This was his most durable administrative work. Important public 
buildings were constructed by him, of which a very fine and useful tank, 
a handsome and commodious court-house, and some important roads, were 
the principal. When the Maharaja attained to power, Lakdir Singh, 
whom the Chief deprived of one of his villages, left the State, and resided 
at Jaipur and Ajmir. In 1866 he invaded Ulwur with a body of fol- 
lowers, but he met with little success, and had to retire. The Govern- 
ment of India strongly disapproved his conduct, but, in consideration of 
the provocation he had met with, and of his previous services, which had 
been very considerable, an income was secured to him. 

Contrary to the wishes of the Government of India, the expelled 
Diwans were permitted to interfere greatly in the affairs of Ulwur, where 
they continued to appoint many officials, and from which they drew a 
large income. 

Captain Impey had left more than twenty lakhs in the treasury, but 
this was soon squandered ; and to raise money, salaries were greatly 

( 25 ) 

reduced, and grants of various kiuds, loug enjoyed by their holders, were 
resumed. Several corps of Musalmans were raised. Fifteen out of 
eighteen troops of the cavalry which had been employed for generations, 
and the Kh&s C/iauki, or bodyguard, were disbanded ; and in February 
1870 another insurrection broke out. Captain James Blair was then 
Political Agent of the " Eastern States," in which Ulwur had in 1869 been 
included. But shortly after the insurrection had begun, though not 
before he had exerted himself greatly to repress it, Captain Blair died, 
and Captain T. Cadell, V.C., was appointed to the Eastern States of 
Rajputana in his place. He was unable to effect a reconciliation between 
the Chief and the insurgent Thakurs, because the former would not concede 
anything; and at length the Government of India appointed a Council 
under the presidency of the Political Agent, who then, December 1870, 
became Political Agent of Ulwur, which was separated from the Eastern 
States. The Raja was to have a seat at the Board, but not to have the 
power of vetoing its decisions or interfering in the executive. 

The members of the Council were four Nariika Thakurs and a Brah- 
man, as follows: 

Thakur Lakbdir Singh of BijwAr, \ 

Tbakur Mabtab Singh of Khora, > Of the twelve kotrfs of Kalian Singb. 

Thakur Hardeo Singh of Thana, ) 

Thakur Mangal Singh of Garhi, Dasawat Naruka. 

Pandit JElup Narain, who was before in the Council under Captain Impey. 

A fixed allowance was settled on the Maharaja, and an establishment 
allotted to him. The new levies were paid up and disbanded, the re- 
sumed grants were, with the sanction of Government, for the most part 
restored, administrative reforms (detailed in the statistical part) were en- 
tered on, and order was entirely established. 

Captain Cadell proposed that as Captain Impey's last Land Revenue 
Settlement was about to expire, a regular settlement should be made, and 
for this purpose an officer was appointed on January 1, 1872. 

In April 1874, Major Cadell went on furlough, and Captain Powlett 
officiated for him until he came back in December 1875. 

On the 14th September 1875, the railroad from Dehli to Ulwur was 
opened. The Maharaja entertained on the occasion a number of European 
residents of Dehli. 

On the 6th of December, the portion between Ulwur and Bandikui on 
the main Rajputana line was opened. 

On the llth October, Maharao Raja Sheodan Singh, who had long 
been in weak health, died of brain affections a few days after his twenty- 
ninth birthday. His funeral took place the same day. No disturbance or 
popular excitement followed the death of the Chief; and as he left no 
legitimate issue, inquiries were requisite for the determination of the 

( 26 ) 

It was necessary that the new Chief should be selected from one of 
the Naruka families, called, as already set forth, the " Bdrah Kotri" of 
Kalian Singh. 

These families were not unanimous. One party wished to be guided 
by the family precedent established by Partap Singh, namely, selection of 
the best candidate ; one by the precedent of taking a boy from Thana, 
which, as above told, had already supplied two Chiefs ; while a third de- 
sired that nearness of kin should outweigh family precedent. The only 
widow was a minor, and the late Chiefs mother showed at first some 

Eventually the Government directed that the claims of the two pro- 
minent candidates, Lakhdir Singh of Bijwar and Mangal Singh of Thana, 
be referred to the " Barah Kotri," and accordingly the reference was made 
on the 22d November 1874. A majority was in favour of Mangal Singh, 
who was, therefore, recognised and confirmed as Ruler of Ulwur by His 
Excellency the Viceroy. 

Maharao Raja Maugal Singh took his seat on the " Cushion " on the 
14th December, a month after he had completed his fifteenth year. 

The officials and the great majority of the j&gird&rs cordially accepted 
the new Chief; but Lakhdir Singh and his supporters of the " Barah 
Kotri," together with one other jdgirddr of position, would not tender their 
allegiance ; and after every effort had been made to induce them to give 
way, and to present the customary " nazar," their j&girs were, on the 25th 
February 1875, taken under management by the Darbdr, and a portion 
of them sequestrated. Lakhdir Singh was ordered to proceed to Ajmir, 
and there to reside. The other recusant Thakurs accompanied him con- 
trary to orders, but were not permitted to remain at Ajmir. 

The resisting jdgird&rs were in number less than one-seventh of the 
whole jdgirddr body, and their estates were less than one-sixth of the 
total jdgir lands. 

Pandit Manphul, C.S.I., was appointed guardian to the Chief, and en- 
tered on his duties in March 1876. 

The Council of Management had been established at a time and under 
circumstances which necessitated exceptional arrangements. Reforms 
were then urgently needed, opposition in every way was expected, and it 
was essential that the administration should be strong enough to remove 
promptly all obstructions. With the death of the late Chief the necessity 
for special executive force disappeared, and by direction of Government, 
the Political Agent withdrew a good deal of the direction and interference 
which were formerly found necessary. This change was rendered easy by 
the system and order which Major Cadell, with the assistance of the 
Council, had established in every department, some details of which are 
mentioned in Part II. 



THE Naruka Rajput State of Ulwur is situated between 27 5' and 28 15' 
latitude, and between 76 10' and 77 15' longitude. Its area 

I ' "*" 

is, according to maps of topographical survey of India, 3024 

square miles, and its population, according to a census taken in 1872, 

was 778,596. It is bounded on the north by the British district of 

Gurgaom, the Bdwal pargana of the Sikh State Nabha, and the Kot Kdsira 

pargana of Jaipur ; on the east by Bhartpur and Gurgaom ; on the 

south by Jaipur ; on the west by Jaipur, Kot Putli, Nabha, and Patiala 


The whole boundary between Ulwur and Jaipur was determined and 
the line duly mapped by Captain Abbott, Assistant Agent Boundary 
Governor- General in the years 1869, 1870, 1871, 1872. He <*iemeut. 
also set up the boundary pillars on this border in the three following 

In February 1873 the Assistant Settlement Officer of Gurgaom decided 
two of the boundary disputes on the Nabha border ;f and in 1874-75 
Lieutenant Massy, Assistant Commissioner, Panjab, laid down the 
Patiala and Ulwur border line, and decided the remaining disputed 
boundaries on the Nabha border. 

In 1853-54 Captain Morrison fixed the Bhartpur and Ulwur boun- 
daries. The boundary where disputes existed between Ulwur and British 
territory was determined by the British Settlement Officers of Ulwur and 
Gurgaom between 1872 and 1876. 

The settlement maps of Ulwur villages situated on its border show 
the boundary accurately. 

Ulwur, situated near the centre of the State, is the chief Chief town, 
town. It is described elsewhere. 

* In March 1868 the disputed boundary between village Paoti of Nabha and villages 
Caduwds, Siaka Ndngal, and Ajerika of Ulwur was settled with the consent of the Ulwur 
Durbar by the Commissioner of Amballah. 

t Partap-pur Ulwur v. Girdhapur Nabha. 

( 28 ) 

Ridges of hills, for the most part parallel, and lying generally from 

north to south, are a feature observable throughout the 

whole State. To the east and north there are few ranges, 

and those low, narrow, short, or often broken, and usually far apart, in 

single or at most double lines. The border hills to the north-east are, 

however, an exception. These are continuous, and often broad for many 

miles. Still the country to the north and east is generally open. 

I have mentioned that the city of Ulwur is situated near the centre of 
the State. Due south of it, on the border, lies Rajgarh, the second town 
in the territory. Between these two points the country is for the most 
part level. But west and north-west of a line joining them are a succes- 
sion of fine hills, the nearest ranges of which lie somewhat irregularly, 
almost in masses, for the valleys between are generally narrow. The 
remoter are divided by wider valleys, which, to the south-west, are very 
rich. To the north and west of the State, the soil is generally very light, 
but, except in parts on the western border, it does not form drift sand- 
heaps like those of Shekhawati. To the east there is much rich flooded 
land, but where water does not lie the soil is usually light. To the south 
the soil is generally pretty good. 

The ranges of the hilly region do not much abound in peaks or taper- 
ing masses, though these are to be seen in some places. Variation in 
the height of parts of the same 'range is generally gradual, but the hills 
are usually rocky, precipitous, and rather difficult to cross, even for a 
man on foot. Sometimes they form a high tableland, where much grass 
grows. The highest points are between 1900 and 2400 feet above sea- 
level.* A geological sketch describing the character of these hills will be 
found in an Appendix. 

The trees and shrubs which abound on their slopes and level tops are 
chiefly dhauk and sdlar. Game is plentiful in the hilly tract ; the 
scenery is often bold and striking ; and charming well-wooded nooks are 
frequently met with where springs flow in secluded dells. 

The rivers and chief streams are the Sabi, the Riiparel, the Chiihar 
Rivers and Sidh, the Lindwah, the Partabgarh and the Ajabgarh. The 

streams. g^j forms for sixteen miles the western boundary of the 
Ulwur territory. Joined by the Sota, it cuts off the north-west corner of the 
State, divides a part of Bdwal, which is Ndbha territory, from Ulwur, and 

Bhdngarh Point, f miles north of Bhdngarh, . . . .2128 feet. 

Kdnkwdri Point, l miles north-east of Kankwari Fort, . . . 2214 

Sirawds Point, l miles south-west of Sfrawds, .... 2131 

Ulwur Fort, . . . . . . . . 1960 

Bhurasidh Point, 1 mile west of Infantry Lines, .... 1927 

Bandrol Point, near Jaipur border (overlooks pass between Ghazi ka Thdnu 

and Bairdt), 1 mile south of Bdndrol, .... 2307 

Bhardich, on Jaipur border, mile west of Bhardich, . . . 2390 

Birpur (overlooks pass between Deoti and Tahla), .... 2048 

( 29 ) 

flows into the Jaipur pargana of Kot Kasim. It is by far the largest of 
the streams in Ulwur, from which it receives many contributions, and it 
carries the drainage of Northern Jaipur ; but its banks are high, its bed 
too sandy for cultivation, and, unlike the other streams, it confers no 
benefit on agriculture, while its floods endanger Rewari, in British terri- 
tory, to the north. It cuts away good land, which sometimes leaves the 
brickwork of wells standing like towers in the river-bed, and its alluvial 
deposit is scarcely fit for tillage. It dries up after the rains. A fine rail- 
way iron bridge resting on masonry piers crosses it just beyond the Ulwur 
border (see " Railway"). 

The Ruparel and Chiihar Sidh are the chief drains of the hills west 
and south of Ulwur city. Both are most valuable irrigation channels, and 
both flow in an easterly direction. The Ruparel (often known as the 
Barah) has almost always a flow of water, the Chuhar Sidh only after rains 
(see "Irrigation"). Near the sources of the Chuhar Sidh is a famous 
shrine (see " Shrines"), and on one branch of the Ruparel is the lake of 

The Lindwah carries the water which flows from part of the north- 
eastern hills. It has in parts a broad bed. Its stream through twelve 
or fifteen miles of its course runs southward, then divides, and turning 
eastward, enters into British territory. It is of much value for irrigation 
purposes, but its flow ceases in the hot mouths. 

From the Tahla Ajabgarh and Partdbgarh parganas to the south-west 
of the State considerable streams flow into Jaipur territory, where they 
join the Banganga. Of these, the Partdbgarh and Ajabgarh nallahs 
usually flow even in the hot weather. 

In the west a nallah of some size, best known as the Narainpur, flows 
northwards into the Sdbi, but it is dry after the rains. 

The lakelets of Siliserh and Deoti are the only ones Lakea. 

in the State. 

Siliserh is formed by a dam nearly 40 feet high, and nearly 1000 feet 
long, thrown across an affluent of the Ruparel by Maharao Raja Banni 
Singh about A.D. 1844. It is nine miles south-west of the city, and to 
an aqueduct which brings its waters to Ulwur is due the beauty of the 
environs (see " City " and " Irrigation "). The lake, when full, is more 
than a mile in length, and about 400 yards in average width. A small 
convenient palace is situated on the rocks above it, and it abounds with 
fish. Boats are kept on the lake. Much game is to be found in its 
neighbourhood, which, in point of scenery, has attractions. All this, 
added to the fact of its being within easy reach of Ulwur city, makes it a 
favourite resort of pleasure parties. 

The Deoti lake is close to the Jaipur border, nearly due south of 
Ulwur. The dam which forms it was built by a Chief of Jaipur. It is 
remarkable for the number of wild-fowl which frequent it, and also for the 
water-snakes, which renders the little palace which stands in its midst 

uninhabitable. It is rather smaller than Siliserh, shallow, and often 
entirely dry in hot weather. 

Other streams are dammed with a view to cultivation, but as the 
water is only retained for a short time, they will be more properly described 
under " Irrigation." There are also a few permanent tanks (see Talao, 
Rajgarh, Ajabgarh, Baghera). 

Fish are preserved in the Siliserh lake, and at two or three points on 
the Riiparel for the benefit of the Darbar, and in some of 
the tanks from religious motives. At Deoti and elsewhere 
there is no restriction on catching them. The Darbar employs four or five 
persons, Maliyas a Musalman caste and Kahars, in protecting and catch- 
ing fish and wild-fowl. There is no class of fishermen now, the nets of 
the Kahdrs, who caught and sold fish, having been confiscated many years 
ago. The Raj fishermen, however, usually poach pretty freely, and sell 
the fish in the bazaar. The fish are caught with cast and drag nets, and 
by spearing or by rod and line ; the water-fowl by a net so set that it can 
be jerked over them when they come near it. 

The best description is the Rahu (Labeo Rohita), which has long been 
held in high estimation.* Murdk and kaldnat, large kinds, are good. 
Scl (large) and soli (small) are liked by natives. Chdlwa are the little 
fish served on skewers at breakfast tables. Pariya and bdrcas are large 
and inferior fish. Temara and sdnka, both small and very bony. Singi 
(small) and ker (large) are both indigestible. The best fish are found in 
Siliserh and the Barah. only. Pariya, sol, and soli, are the commonest, 
especially pariya. f 

In Deoti there are only the little fish said to come with the rains. 

Alligators (Gau) are found in Siliserh and the Barah; they grow to 
six or seven feet, and destroy many fish. They also kill goats and 
donkeys, and occasionally ponies. 

* See Elliot's Mus. Hist., vol. vi. p. 352. 

t Dr Ffrench Mullen, Agency Surgeon, has kindly furnished me with the following list 
of fish found in Ulwur : 

Native Names. 






Cyprinidae. Cyprininas. 


Catla Buchanan!. 

No. 195 of Dr. Day's 

Report on the Fish 

of India. 





As. Morar. 

No. 267 do. 

Kirh or Ker. 





Pariya or Pad <lia. 

Cyprinidce. . 


Aspidoparia. 'As. Jaya. 

No. 268 do. 




Pseudentrop us. Pseu. Atherinoides. 

No. 84 do. 




Discognathus Dis. Lamta. 

No. 147 do. 




Labeo. Labeo Rohita. 

No. 159 do. 






Sol or Saul. 



Ophiocephalus. Ophio. Marulius. 

No. 34 do. 

Solf or Chotd 


Do. Ophio. Striatus. 

No. 67 do. 





Sarcobranchus. Sac. Fossilis. 

No. 113 do. 

Temara or Tingra 

Not idi'Utified. 

or KaftS. 

Whm or l.uhm. 



Mastacemblus. Mas. Armatus. 

No. 46 do. 

( 31 ) 

The mass of the hills throughout the hilly region are quartzite, inter- 
spersed with bands of limestone, micaceous schist, &c. Mineral 
There is some trap to the south, and gueiss is also found, productions. 
To the north-west are slates ; to the south-west fine white marble and a 
pinkish marble. 

Metamorphic slate-coloured sandstone is quarried in slabs twenty 
miles north-east of Ulwur city. Within twenty miles south-east of the 
city similar slabs are found, and also fine white ashlar sandstone to the 
south-east, very valuable for building purposes. 

Black marble is found sixteen miles east of the city and in its neigh- 

Talc, red ochre, inferior salt, saltpetre, potash, are yielded. 

Iron ore is abundant, and much iron was formerly produced. Copper 
is worked profitably, and a little lead has been found (see Mines and 

The Darbar preserves the trees in many parts of the State. They are 
most abundant in the hilly region, but they are to be found 

xt, i i i ii AI. 1.1 u j f Forests and 

in the plain elsewhere, especially in the neighbourhood of wad vegetable 
the city, where there are extensive but not thick " 6dbul" P 1 * 10118 - 
woods, which stand on both cultivated and uncultivated land. Lately 
the tree in the centre of the fields have been cleared away for the most 
part, and only those on the borders suffered to remain. Some details 
regarding the different forests will be found under " Grass, Game, and 
Wood Preserves. '* Here it will be sufficient to specify the principal wild 
trees, shrubs, and plants, and their general situation. 

In the main hilly tract the Sdlar (Boswellia thurifera) and the Dhauk, 
large and small (Anogeissus latifolia and pendula), are usually the 
commonest trees on the upper part of the slopes and on the tableland, 
and the dhdk (Butea frondosa) at the base of the hills and in the narrow 
valleys. The Tdl (pentaptera) forms a very picturesque wood in one 
place (see " Tal birich "), and palms are here and there numerous. 
Bamboos are plentiful and valuable on some hills to the south and west, 
and the bargat (Ficus bengalensis) is here and there conspicuous. The 
following is the list of the trees common in the hills and valleys. It 
has no pretensions to completeness : 

Khair (Acacia catechu). Yields ebony. 

Khairi. Yields a gum ; the implement called mused is made of its wood. 

Kadhu (Stercularia urens). Yields Katird gum. 

I (Nyctanthes arbortristis). Used for baskets, and the flowers are 
Chaparn or > v J 
TT , . , offered in temples. 

Harwngar ) 

Kirna (Wrightia tinctoria). Long pods yielding juice, put in milk to thicken it. 

Sword scabbards made from wood. 
Karidla or Amaltds (Cassia fistula). 
Gurjen. A light pretty wood, sometimes used fur furniture. 

( 32 ) 


Ddsd. Used in Ledges. 

A tan or Zarkher. Its fruit eaten by poor. 

Kikar (Acacia arabica). Another name for bdbul. 

Komblier. Sarangis (a musical instrument), &c., made from it. 

Aonla (Phythanthus emblica). 

Dolia. Shrub, with alternate spikate shoots, bearing small ovate alternate leaves. 


Harh (medicinal). 

Tendu (Diospyros inelanoxylon). Furnishes ebony. 

Chonkar or Kejra (Prosopis spicigera). 

Gajrend. A fig ; leaves like " bargat," and with similar habits. It is equal to 
" binola" as a food for cattle. 

Simal (Bombyx). Cotton-tree. Monkeys eat the flowers before they open ; 
" musla " (as roots are called) much used in medicine. 

un. A large tree. 

Hingot (Balanites Roxburghii). 

Gular (Ficus virgata). 

Ganger, the Chabeni of Karaull (Grewia populifolia). Leaves alternate ; some- 
thing like young ilex. Has a drupe which tastes like a hip ; makes good 

Jdman (Syzygium jambolanum). 

Aila. Root and bark and fruit used in medicine. 

Aria. Has a very acid seed in a pod. (Low tree.) 

Kdld Kurd. Do. 

Kadam (Anthocephalus or Nauclea kadamba). 

Jiwapot. Rosaries made from its berries. 

Ber (Zizyphus hortensis). 

Pdpri (Pongamia glabra [?] ). 

Gugal (Balsamodendron mukul). Furnishes gum (Bdellium or myrrh), offered 
at " dhiip " to Thakur, i.e., at 9 A.M., to Sri Khrishan. 

JJidl. Green branched, prickly. 

Moria or ) 

Umra } ^ ar S e ^ eave d handsome shrub, in damp valley. 

Papar. \ 

V , f Bushes. 

Kadam. ) 

Kdkond. A tree. 

Jinger. Small tree, like Kachinar. 

Guldr. Handsome large-leaved shrub. 

Komher. Large pipal-shaped leaves ; wood excellent for furniture. 

Ill the plains the following trees are the commonest : 

Jent (Sesbania). 

Nim (Melia indica). 

Kikar (Acacia arabia). Very numerous. 
Pipal. Fig. 

( 33 ) 

Bargat. Fig. 
Jhdl (Salvadora). 
Fardsh (Tamarisk). 
Skis/tarn (Dalbergia). 
Ruhera (Tecoma). 
fttu (Salvadora). 
Am (Mango). 
Imli (Tamarind). 
Senjna (Moringa). 
Ber (Zizyphus jujuba). 

The most valuable of the abundant trees are : 

Kikar. For its timber (which is that chiefly used by the Darbar) ; its pods and 
its bark used in dyeing and in distilling spirit. 

Dhank and ) 

Vtil f Used for charcoal mostly. (See Mines and Quarries.) 

Bamboos. Much used for Raj purposes, and produces a revenue of Rs. 3000 

besides. They are inferior to the imported bamboo. 
Palms. Used for pankahs, fruit, and mats; yields a trifling sum to Raj. 

Toddy is not produced. 
Dhdk or ) _ 
Chila I k eaves universa " v used as platters ; bring a small revenue. 

Lac. Brings a revenue of about Rs. 300. The contract is sold annually. It is 
chiefly produced on pipal-trees. That on others is of an inferior quality. 

Of shrubs, the Ber bushes ("pala ") are the commonest and most valuable! 
especially in light soils. " Arusa," which grows in rocky raviny ground, makes 
the best charcoal for gunpowder, but it is not conserved. The Ak (Calatropis) 
is seen everywhere, but its strong fibre and soft down is scarcely utilised. 
Khimp, found in light wastes, is used for ropes, baskets, and food. The 
best wild vetch, especially abundant in the Tijara hills, is the Saneji. It is 
said to be as good as cultivated pulse for goats and camels. It has ternate 
opposite leaves, and roundish two-seeded ventrous pods, very numerous 
in the axiles of the leaves. A creeper called Gilor is spoken of as a 
valuable medicinal herb ; and another, called Machechi, is valued for its 
esculent flowers. 


Pula (the high jungle grass). Collected from grass preserves in large quantities. 
Surwdld. Spear grass ; the commonest grass in the hills and plains. 

Serin. ) 

,' ( Common in hills ; inferior to Surwdld. 

Bagder. ) The large reed-like looking grass. 

Jaranga. Better than Surwdld ; often seen on field borders where there is 

much water ; grows four feet high. 
Aryan. " Matmard " is the villagers' name for it. 

QandhU. ) 

T , f See Karauli Gazetteer. 

Lamp. ) 

Kdns. The well-known land-impoverishing grass. 


f The rich grass of lawns. 

Ddb or 


Bharut. The prickly-husked grass. See " Bikanfr Gazetteer." It is little used 

for humau food in Ulwur. 


Are other grasses. 



Mota (?), Sawank (Panicum colonum), Makara (Dactyloctenium Egyptiacum), 

are, I believe, the grasses the seeds of which are chiefly eaten by the 

people in times of scarcity. 
Bathiia and Dub are the principal wild vegetables of the early part of the year, 

and Panwdr, Choldi, Lohsua after the rains. 

Tigers (ndhar) abound in the hilly tract, and many are killed every 
year within a space a few miles square by the Chief and 

Wild animals. ' -i , , , 

European sportsmen. Panthers, both the large and the 
small kind (" tendua" and " b&ghera "), are also numerous in the same 
hills, but they are found almost everywhere, and frequent the gardens 
round the city. 

Many S&mbhar roam over the hilly tract, as well as nilg&i, which are 
also found on the plains to the north. Pig were formerly numerous all 
over the State, but Maharaja Sheodan Singh allowed the villagers to kill 
them, and at present there are comparatively few. Antelopes are to be 
found everywhere. 

Of small game, hares, quail, and partridges (black and brown), are 
numerous ; ducks are found on the nallahs and lakes, especially on -the 
Deoti, where they are caught in nets while resting on the banks at night. 
Coolan and geese, too, frequent the nallahs. Throughout the country the 
common peafowl is the most conspicuous bird, as elsewhere in Rajputaua. 
It is said that a white variety is sometimes met with. 

The sdras (Grus antigone) adorns almost every cornfield in the cold 
weather, and is respected by Hindu and Musalman. The male and female 
are said to be as attached to each other as the chakrvd and cliakwi. 

The following is a list of wild animals, furnished by Khawas Sheo 
Bakhsh, Superintendent of the Raj preserves : 

Sher or Ndliar (tiger). 

Tendtid (large panther). Believed by natives to be a cross between the panther 

and tigress. 

Baghera (smaller panther). 
Lidli or Bedido (wolf). 
Jarak (hyena), on which Ddkans or witches are said to ride. Sheo Bakhsh says 

one was caught at Ulwur with nose bored for strings. 
Ghantdli (a small deer shot near water in hot weather). 

( 35 ) 

Roz (female nilgai). 

Nil (male nilgai). 

Ilaran (antelope). 

Chikdra (ravine deer). 

Suar (pig). When twelve years old believed invulnerable to bullets. 

Kharyosh (common hare). 

Dhim Khargosh (small kind of hare). 

Seh (porcupine). It is said that if a porcupine quill be stuck in a door, the house- 
hold will quarrel till it is removed. 

Si&l or GdJrd (jackal). Said to have in its head what is called a SiijAl Singhi \ if 
a person keeps this about him he is invulnerable. 

Lonkti or Phokri (fox). If it barks in the months Kdrtik, Mangsar, Pos, and 
Mdgh, there will be rain in Asarh, Sawan, Bhadon, Kuwar. This animal 
is much observed for omens. 

Bijti (civet cat). Badger according to Jerdon. 

Buck (badger). 

Mashak bildi (wild cat). 

Sdla (ant-eater). Sheo Bakhsh has seen it lying sucking up ants which had col- 
lected or were passing. 

Jal mama (otter). 

Siyah gosh (lynx). 

Newal (mungoose). 

Jatkar (mungoose, large kind). 

Ghora Go (a lizard about two feet long, from the skin of which shoes, scabbard 
covering, &c., are made, especially by the poor). 

Gadar bildo (wild cat). 

Langur (monkey). Said to love its young to such an extent that it preserves 
and fondles their bodies for six months after death. 

Chamgidar (flying-foxes). Mischievous in gardens. They hang in great num- 
bers upon the trees near the city palace. 


Bdn MurgJd (spurred partridges). 

Titar (partridges). 

Kal Titar (black partridges). 

Lawd (a species of quail, said to be not a bird of passage). 

Gilji Lawd (button quail). 

Eater (the common quail, which is a bird of passage). 

Gdgar Bater (a quail). 

Mor (peacock). 

Safed Mor (white peacock, some towards Hajipur and Hamirpur). 

Bat Bal (golden plover or grouse). 

Kulang (never seen on ground. Caught with hawks. The common crane, not 

what Europeans call coolan*). 
Bdtia (a water-fowl). 
Kltarkara (a bird of passage). 

* Jerdon, vol. iii. p. 664. 

( 3G ) 

Kurddntli (curlew). 

Hariydl (green pigeon). 
Tukdar (bird of passage). 
Chardj (conies in rains). 
Kurbdn or Barsalli. 
Tola Laibrl (parrot). 
Tola Tuyan (do.) 

Baiya (weaver bird). 
Ulu (owl, called Rdt ka Raja). 
Kochri (night bird). 
Siyam Chiri. 
Doban Chiri. 

Kanjan (said to have a feather in its head which renders one who gets it invi- 
sible, and in the month of Sawan it is itself invisible). 

I (said to pick bits of meat out of a timer's mouth when it is asleep). 
Banddni ) 

Tintori (said to chirp above a tiger as the latter moves along). 
Fish and alligators have already been spoken of under " Lakes." 



BY direction of Major Cadell, Political Agent, and the Council, a census 
of the whole population was taken on April 10, 1872. Efforts were made 
to secure reliable results. The total population was returned as 778,596, 
which gives an average of about 260 to the square mile. 

The figures showing cultivators, non-cultivators, shops, and houses 
will be found in the statement on page 50. 

Of the fiscal divisions there mentioned, Tijara, Kishengarh, Manddwar, 
and Bahror are the northern. South of them come Govind- Fiscal 

garh, Ramgarh, Ulwur, and Bdnsur. On the southern border divisions, 
are Katambar, Lachmangarh, Rajgarh, and Thana Ghdzi. For further 
particulars see " Divisions and Subdivisions." 

There is no pastoral people without settled homes in the State. 

The Meos are numerically the first race in the State, and the agricul- 
tural portion of them is considerably more than double any 
other class of cultivators except Chumars. They occupy 
about half the Ulwur territory, and the portion they dwell in lies to the 
north and east (see Mewdt). 

They are divided into fifty-two clans, of which the twelve largest are 
called " Pals," and the smaller " Gots." Many of these are not settled 
in Ulwur, but would be found in Mathra, Bhartpur, and Gurgaom. 
These clans contend much with one another, but the members of a clan 
sometimes unite to assist one of their number when in danger of being 
crushed by a fine, or to recover a village lost to the clan by a want of 

Of the 448 villages belonging to the Meos, the Ghaseria clan holds 
112; the Dhingal, 70; the Landdwat, 64; the Nai, 63; the Singal, 54; 
the Dulot, 53 ; the Pundlot, 22. 

It has already been set forth in the historical sketch that the Meos 
for they no doubt are often included under the term Mewatti were, 
during the Mahomedan period of power, always notorious for their 
turbulence and predatory habits ; however, since their complete subjection 
by Bakhtdwar Singh and Banni Singh, who broke up the large turbulent 
villages into a number of small hamlets, they have become generally well 
behaved ; but they return to their former habits when opportunity occurs. 


( 38 ) 

lu 1857 they assembled, burnt State ricks, carried off cattle, &c., but dd 
not succeed in plundering any town or village in Ulwur. In British 
territory they plundered Firozpur and other villages, and when a British 
force came to restore order many were hanged. 

Though Meos claim to be of Rajput origin, there are grounds for believ- 
ing that many spring from the same stock as the Minds. The similarity 
between the words Meo and Mind suggest that the former may be a con- 
traction of the latter. Several of the respective clans are identical in 
name (Singal, Nai, Dulot, Pimdalot, Dingal, Balot) ; and a story told 
of one Daria Meo, and his lady-love, Sisbadani Mini, seems to show that 
they formerly intermarried. In Bolandshahr a caste called Meo Miuds is 
spoken of in the Settlement Report, which would seem further to con- 
nect the two. However, it is probable enough that apostate Rajputs 
and bastard sons of Rajputs founded many of the clans, as the legends 

The Meos are now all Musalmans in name ; but their village deities 
(see Religion) are the same as those of Hindu Zamindars. They keep, too, 
several Hindu festivals. Thus the Holi is with Meos a season of rough 
play, and is considered as important a festival as the Muharram, Id, and 
Shabibardt ; and they likewise observe the Janam ashtmi, Dasehra, and 
Diwdli. They often keep Brahmin priests to write the pili ckitthi, or 
note fixing the date of a marriage. They call themselves by Hindu names, 
with the exception of " Ram ; " and " Singh " is a frequent affix, though 
not so common as " Khdu." 

On the Amdnas, or monthly conjunction of the sun and moon, Meos, 
in common with Hindu Ahirs, Gujars, &c., cease from labour; and when 
they make a well, the first proceeding is to erect a " Ckabutra" to 
" Bairtiji" or " Hanumdn" However, when plunder was to be obtained, 
they have often shown little respect for Hindu shrines and temples ; and 
when the sanctity of a threatened place has been urged, the retort has been 
" Turn to Deo, Ham Meo!" You may be a Deo {God}, but I am a Meo! 

As regards their own religion, Meos are very ignorant. Few know the 
Kalima, and fewer still the regular prayers, the seasons of which they en- 
tirely neglect. This, however, only applies to Ulwur territory; in British, 
the effect of the schools is to make them more observant of religious 
duties. Indeed, in Ulwur, at certain places where there are mosques, 
religious observances are better maintained, and some know the Kalima, 
say their prayers, and would like a school. 

Meos do not marry in their own Pal or clan, but they are lax about 
forming connections with women of other castes, whose children they re- 
ceive into the Meo community. On their marriage Rs. 200 is thought a 
respectable sum to spend, that is to say, Rs. 130 on betrothal (" Sagai ") and 
Rs. 70 on marriage. They sometimes dower their daughters handsomely, and 
sometimes make money by them. Indeed, they often tell one that they 
have sold their daughters to pay their debts. 

( 39 ) 

As already stated, Brahmins take part in the formalities preceding a 
marriage, but the ceremony itself is performed by the Kazi, who receives a 
fee of about Rs. 1-4 and 8 seers of rice. 

The rite of circumcision is performed by the village barber (Nai) and 
the village Fakir,* who also guards a new grave for some days till the 
ground has become too hard for animals to disturb. 

As agriculturists, Meos are inferior to their Hindu neighbours. The 
point in which they chiefly fail is in working their wells, for which they 
lack patience. 

Their women, whom they do not confine, will, it is said, do more field- 
work than the men ; indeed one often finds women at work in the 
crops when the men are lying down. Like the women of low Hindu 
castes they tattoo their bodies, a practice disapproved by Musalmans in 
general. Meos are generally poor and live badly ; they have no scruples 
about getting drunk when opportunity offers. The men wear the dhoti 
and kamrij and not pdejamas. Their dress is, in fact, Hindu. The men 
often wear gold ornaments, but I believe the women are seldom or never 
allowed to have them. 

The Rajputs of Ulwur, though the ruling class, do not form a twentieth 
of the population of the state. Those who are jdgirdars will 
be spoken of under " Aristocracy." The remainder, which 
form the mass, are laud proprietors, cultivators, and in the service of the 
State, chiefly in the army. About one-seventh of the whole are Musal- 
mans. The Hindu Rajputs are to the north Chauham, to the west Shek- 
hawats, to the south-west Rajawat, elsewhere chiefly Naruka. Their 
origin is treated of under " Aristocracy." They are bad cultivators, and 
do not work with their own hands until compelled by the direst necessity. 
It is, however, a mistake to suppose that the proudest families do not 
eventually yield to circumstances by putting the hand to the plough. 
Instances of king-descended Rajputs tilling with their own hands could 
be found all over Rajpiitana, 

The Musalman Rajputs differ from their Hindu brethren in being more 
ready to take service out of Ulwnr. They maintain their old marriage 
rules so far as not to ally themselves with families of their own clan ; and 
they seek their wives from, and give their daughters to, Musalman Rajputs 
of Hariana and elsewhere. They are regarded as distinct from Khanzadas, 
who, though of Rajput origin, have intermarried with several Musalman 

Of Khanzadas, the old rulers of Mewdt, much has been already said 
in the historical sketch. I will add something regarding 
their present condition and their origin, though, as the 
figures show, they are numerically insignificant, and they cannot now be 

. * Fakirs are of various races ; they are usually " Mudarias," or attendants of. shrines ; 
they make the solars, or flags of the Saint Saiyad Masaud. 

reckoned among the aristocracy. In social rank they are far above the 
Meos, and though probably of more recent Hindu extraction, they are 
better Musalmans. They observe no Hindu festivals, and will not acknow- 
ledge that they pay any respect to Hindu shrines. But Brahmins take part 
in their marriage contracts, and they observe some Hindu marriage cere- 
monies. Though generally as poor and ignorant as the Meos, they, unlike 
the latter, say their prayers, and do not let their women work in the fields. 
They are not first-rate agriculturists, the seclusion of their women 
giving them a disadvantage beside most other castes. No Khanzadas now 
hold any "j&gir" or rent-free village in the Ulwur state. 

Some have emigrated eastward and taken to trade in the Gangetic 
cities, but these have no connection now with the original Khanzada 
country. Those who have not abandoned the traditions of their clan are 
often glad of military service, and about fifty are in British regiments. 
In the service of the Ulwur state there are many (see "Army"). Of 
these Dull Khan, who commands the Khass regiment, is the leading 
man, and entitled to an honourable reception in Darbar. The Shahabad 
family (see Shahabad) have a fort commandantship, and supply thirty- 
five horsemen on fixed pay for the state service. 

In Tijara (see Tijara Tahsil) there is a Khanzada chaudri. There 
are twenty-six Khanzada villages in the state, in most of which the pro- 
prietors themselves work in the fields and follow the plough.* I do not 
know of any other settlements out of Mewat. 

What was said of the Khanzadas in the historical sketch was based on 
the Persian histories, the most reliable sources of information. But the 
Khanzadas produce family histories and genealogies of their own, on which, 
however, much dependence cannot be placed ; for they do not bear the test 
of comparison with the Persian histories. According to these family tradi- 
tions, one Adhan Pal, fourth in descent from Taman Pal, Jadii chief of 
Biana (see Karauli Gazetteer) established himself on the hills separating 
Tijara and Firozpur (Gurgaon), at a spot called Durala, of which the ruins 
still are to be seen. Thence he was driven to Sarehta, a few miles to the 
north in the same hills, where there are considerable remains (see Sarehta) ; 
and his grandson Lakhan Pal became, in the time of Firoz Shah, a 
Musalman, and established himself at Kptala. He held all Mewat, and 
even districts beyond its limits. His sons and grandsons settled in the 
principal places, and it is said that 1484 towns and villages (kheras) were 
under their sway, in some of which tombs and ruins exist which are said 
to have belonged to them. 

The term Khanzada is probably derived from Khanazad, for it appears 
that Bahadar Nahar, the first of the race mentioned in the Persian his- 
tories, associated himself with the turbulent slaves of Firoz Shah after the 
death of the latter, and, being a pervert, would contemptuously receive the 

* Shahabad and Marakpur are the principal 

name of Khdnazdd (slave) from his brethren. The Khanzadas themselves 
indignantly repudiate this derivation, and say the word is Khan Jadu (or 
Lord Jadu), and was intended to render still nobler the name of the 
princely Rajput race from which they came.* 

About half the Brahmins are agriculturists. The principal Brahmin 
sub-tribe in Ulwur is the Gor. The great divisions of the 
Gor sub-tribe are shown below. 

Saraswat. Found in Ulwur. 

Kankubjl. Do. 

Maithil. Do. 

Gor. The most numerous caste in Ulwur. 

UtkaL None in Ulwur. 

Tailang. None in Uiwur. 
Maharashtra. Do. 
Karnatik. Do. 

The five Gors. 

The five Darawars. 

Darawar. Found in Ulwur. 
Gurja. Do. 

The first five are the Brahmins of the North of India, the second 
those of the South, the Narbadda forming the boundary between. The 
five Gors, as regards eating and intermarriage, keep entirely aloof the 
one from the other. The first four Dhardwars eat together, but do not 
intermarry. The Gurjas (or Gujardtis) keep apart from all. 

There are fifty-nine gotrs or sections of these ten great divisions, of 
which six gotrs belong to the Gor division already mentioned as the most 
important in Ulwur. The six gotrs of Gors are as follows : 

The Adh Gor is the name of the most numerous gotr in Ulwur; the 
Sanawar, the second most numerous ; the Giijar Gor ; the Chaurasia ; the 
Parik ; and the Ddhima. 

Of these the Sanawar and Adh Gor eat and intermarry ; the Gujar 
Gor, Churdsia, Parik, and Ddhima, each keeps entirely aloof from all other 
gotrs. In Jaipur, however, Gor gotrs do all eat together, owing to the 
action of a Jaipur chief who interested himself in the matter. 

It is, however, admitted on all hands that these caste restrictions are 
weakening, and occasionally one hears of a marriage in which bride and 
bridegroom belong to the same clan (gotr). 

The principal Baniya or Mahdjan clans are Khandelwal Baniya*. 
and Agarwal. 

Minas were formerly the rulers of much of the country now held by 
the Jaipur chief. They still hold a good social position, for 
Rajputs will eat and drink from .their hands, and they are 
the most trusted guards in the Jaipur state. The Minas are of two 
classes the " Zaminddri," or agricultural, and the " Chaukidari," or 
watchmen. The former are excellent cultivators, and are good, well- 

* See Karauli Gazetteer, \\ 1. 

( 42 ) 

behaved por.ple. They form u large portion of the population in Karauli, 
and are numerous in Jaipur. 

The " Chaukidari" Minas, though of the same tribe as the other class, 
are distinct from it. They consider themselves soldiers by profession, and 
so somewhat superior to their agricultural brethren, from whom they take, 
but do not give, girls in marriage. Many of the " Chaukidari " Minas 
take to agriculture, and, I believe, thereby lose caste to some extent. 
These Chaukidari Minas are the famous marauders. They travel in 
bands, headed by a chosen leader, as far south as Haidarabad in the 
Deccan, where they commit daring robberies ; and they are the principal 
class which the Thuggee and Dacoitee Suppression Department has to act 
against. In their own villages they are often charitable ; and as success- 
ful plunder has made some rich, they benefit greatly the poor of their 
neighbourhood, and are consequently popular. But those who have not 
the enterprise for distant expeditions, but steal and rob near their own 
homes, are numerous, and are felt to be a great pest. Some villages pay 
them highly as Chaukidars to refrain from plundering and to protect the 
village from others. At the small town of Kot Putli the Chaukidars' 
legitimate income is nearly Rs. 2000. So notorious are they as robbers that 
the late chief of Ulwur, Bauni Singh, afraid lest they should corrupt 
their agricultural brethren, and desirous of keeping them apart, forbade 
their marrying, or even smoking or associating with members of the well- 
conducted class. 

In April 1863 Major Impey, then Political Agent of Ulwur, issued 
orders placing the Chaukidari Minas under surveillance ; and under Major 
CadelPs direction, lists of them have been made out, periodical roll-call 
enforced in the villages, and absence without a leave certificate punished. 

I am not sure that, although, speaking generally, Minas are divided 
into Chaukidari and Zamindari, there is any hard and fast line between 
the two classes. There is, I believe, an intermediate class ; for M. R. 
Banni Singh's attempts to keep the two apart were not very successful. 
This would account for the figures of the statement given below, which, 
however, still tells heavily against the Chaukidari Minas. It was pre- 
pared in April 1874. 

Statement regarding Ulwur Mind's : 

1. Percentage of agricultural Minas to total population of the state 5*2 

2. Of non-agricultural . . . . . .1*1 

3. Percentage of apprehensions of agricultural to total apprehen- 

sions ....... 14-0 

4. Percentage of non-agricultural to total apprehensions . . 15 '2 

For number of Minas convicted of criminal offences, see " Jail." 
There are said to be 32 clans of Minas. Out of 59 Minas appre- 
hended for Dacoity by the Dacoity Suppression Department, I found that 
the Jeb clan furnished 17, the Kdgot 9, the Sim 8, and the Jarwal and 

( 43 ) 

Bagri 5 each. The Susdmat was, I believe, formerly the most powerful 
clan, and that which held Amer. 

The Giijars of Ulwur are not, as elsewhere, an unmanageable class. 
Their anxiety in some places to be free from the oppression of 
Rajput tyrants, who formerly exacted vexatious dues and 
curtailed their liberty, has made them good subjects of the State. The 
clans found are the Kasana, Chandija, Rawat, Chandela, Newar, Bhedi. 

Jats here, as everywhere else, take the highest rank as agriculturists, 
or share it with Kachis alone. The clans found in Ulwur 
are Nirwdl, Kawalia, Kadalia, Simrdla, Kdsanwdl, Sadawat. 
They usually abstain from taking life, from eating meat, drinking wine, and 
smoking tobacco. In their villages " Panck pira makdns" (see "Religon") 
are usually found, and Musulman saints are often maintained. 

Ahirs are good peaceable cultivators, and need no special notice. The 
clans are Mela Kanochia, Bhagwana, Jadon, Bakaria, Sasodia. 
The Ahir Rao of Rewari, formerly an important chief to 
the north, belonged to the Aphriya division of the Jadon clan. He once 
had, it is said, 360 villages, but the British reduced them to 45, and these, 
too, were taken away from him for his conduct during the mutinies of 1857. 

The numbers of the most numerous and important castes have been 
already specified, and something has been said regarding each. The Chu- 
mars are indeed more numerous, I believe, than any other caste, but they 
are in very low public estimation. They are cultivators, leather workers, 
and village drudges. 

The following castes have between 10,000 and 20,000 members : 
Kumhdrs or potters, Fakirs (see p. 39, note), Kulis and Juldrs or 
weavers, Nais or barbers, Khdtis or carpenters. 

Sakkas or water carriers, Jogis or religious devotees of sorts, Dhobis 
or washermen, Shekhs (respectable Musalmaus), Luhdrs or blacksmiths, 
Mirdsis or low Musalman musicians, Telis or oilmen, range between 
4000 and 10,000. 

Rangrez or dyers, usually Musalman ; Saiyads, held in high esteem 
(p. 71); Kandkeras, cotton cleaners, usually Musalman; Chelas or 
household slaves ; each exceed 2000 in number. 

Of the following there are more than 1000: Kahdrs (Hindoo Palki 
bearers), Rebdris (Hindoo camel keepers), Manikdrs (Hindoo and Musal- 
man bracelet makers), MujAivars (Musalman shrine menials), Ddkots (a 
low caste of Brahmin beggar), Kunjras (Musalman greengrocers), 
Bkatidras (Musalman sarai or inn caterers. 

Those which follow exceed 500 in number : Bharbhuryas (Hindoo grain 
roasters), Agaris (Hindoo salt extractors), Baoris (a thieving and despised 
watchman class), Nakibs (Musalman runners), Dkddkis (a caste of popular 

Other castes less numerous are Jodh bargis (a low Hindoo caste), 
Dhunsar (a very respectable baniya caste), Bisdtis (pedlars), Kaim Kkdnis 

( 44 ) 

(respectable Rajput Musalmans), Lodhas (?), Palleddrs (porters), BJidnds 
(Musalman actors), Chdrans (Hindoo poets), Khajasarai and Hijra (kinds 
of eunuchs), Gadarias (Hindoo blanket makers), Gkosi (milk sellers), 
Kamnigars (painters, formerly bow makers), B&zigars (jugglers), Khatris 
(Hindoo traders), Patuas (Hindoo workers in silk), Thateras (brass- 
workers), Niydria (collectors of silver filings), Badhiks (bird catchers), 
Sisgars (glass workers). The above are mentioned in order of numerical 
importance. The last few- are each under twenty. 

I have not attempted to distinguish between a mere profession and a 
caste proper, which eats and marries with none outside of it, but for the 
most part the list is one of distinct castes. 


There are no extremely wealthy people in the state and only a few 
rich. These last are found not in the city of Ulwur, but in 

The wealthy. -r, j -r> , /. -rr- , J 

Rajgarh and Bas of Kishengarh. 

Some trouble was taken to ascertain the material condition of the 
agricultural population, and to estimate the proportions of 
the comfortable class, the intermediate, and the very poor. 
For one of the first-class it was calculated that there would be four of the 
second and from fifteen to twenty-five of the third. The first-class live 
well, consuming plenty of milk, butter-milk porridge (rdbri), ghee, sugar, 
and good flour. The second-class obtains butter-milk porridge (rdbri), but 
little if any milk or ghee, and no sugar, and only the coarser kind of grain. 
The third class consumes water porridge and coarse grain ; everything else 
goes to pay the debts due to the baniya. All classes get more or less 
tobacco ; about 50 per cent, do not possess more than one head of cattle. 
A good deal, however, is spent by the poorer classes on marriages; 
and though boys often remain long unmarried owing to poverty, few grow 
old single, for Meos allow concubinage without bastardising the issue of 
it, and the lower castes of Hindus can make daricha marriages that is, 
marry the widows of their brethren. Many make money by the marriage 
of their daughters. Even Baniyas now often do this. 

In dress I can discover no striking peculiarity. The common dopatta 
is worn by men with the angarkha, or in the absence of both, the 
dohar. The women wear angis* paej&mas (drawers) or ghdgras (petti- 
coats), and dopattas. Khanzada women wear the tilak, a kind of tunic 
worn also by low castes. 

A European official on coming to Rajputana will observe that his re- 
ception at the villages he visits is different from what he 
usually meets with in British territory. As he approaches, 
women collect, one places a brass vessel on her head, and the party be- 

* Kanchali, sina bandh, choli (all the same}. 

( 45 ) 

gins a song. All visitors of position receive this attention, and are ex- 
pected to drop a rupee or more into the vessel, which is called Kolas. 

The songs sung on these occasions are popular ones of the neighbour- 
hood, often containing allusions to "dear Amer," the old 
capital of the present Jaipur territory, and to the great 
chiefs of that territory, Man Singh and Siwai Jai Singh, who formerly 
held parts of that country, and whose names are still household words. 

Sometimes a grand procession or the preparation of a banquet is the 
burden of the song. About Ulwur the praises of the beautiful memorial 
dome and the tank under the fort are deservedly sung, but always in 
connection with an expression of loyalty towards the local chief. 

Another class of common village ballads illustrates the life of the people. 
Occasionally one hears a strain deprecating the return of some terrible 
famine. Sometimes an official is received with a kolas song lament- 
ing the poverty of the village lands which will yield but ne crop a year. 
When the rains are favourable and the dahr or floodable lands submerged, 
gleeful strains arise in anticipation of the coming crop of cotton and 
sugar-cane (ban bar), and of the bright-spangled petticoats and well-dyed 
scarves, which will soon be attainable. A tank or other public work con- 
structed by some benevolent magnate of the neighbourhood, or his lady, 
sometimes produces a popular ballad in praise of the benefactor ; but 
marriages and births are the grand subjects for songs. The former often 
expresses intense anxiety regarding the respectability of the bride's attire 
when she appears under the nuptial canopy, and her mother's brother is 
the person chiefly looked to for aid. 

The song said to be the most popular on the occasion of births among 
all castes except Rajputs exhibits the popular feeling with regard to con- 
duct and duty. The child is exhorted to dwell on the name of God 
(Sahib), who had preserved him in the womb, and worship Him who had 
safely given him birth. He should use and enjoy the good things of 
life, thus if he has relations he should not live in loneliness, if he has 
ghee and grain and oil he should dwell free from hunger, debt, and dark- 
ness ; if he can keep a horse he should not walk on foot. 

He should walk in the path of his religious order (rasta panth) and 
not wander from it. 

He should see his neighbour's field fruitful without covetousness, and 
if he cannot trust his self-restraint he mast avoid the field. 

He should show no levity on seeing another man's wife, and in spite 
of wandering desire regard her as his sister ; only in that relation to her 
can he attain to God. 

Let him give cows to Brahmins, the merit of it will establish him. 

Let him give clothes to his sister and her children, the merit of it will 
support him. 

With his family let him bathe in the Ganges and the Jumna. 

Kabaddi, or a sort of prisoner's base, played, I believe, all over 

( 46 ) 

India, and hogrl or hockey, are the two principal games played by 
young men. They are chiefly played by moonlight. Ilogri 
is sometimes represented in frescoes on palace walls, and 

is alluded to in the lines regarding the turbulent founders of the Dasa- 

wat Nanika and the Shekawat clans 

Ilajo Shekho, raj su 

Parpe nahin ariyan j 
Satu seri mokall, 

Ddsa khel dhariyan. 

O Raja Shekha, with you 

None successfully contend ; 
The seven ways open (i.e., unchecked), 

Ddsa strikes the hocky ball (or plays dacoitee). 

The expenses defrayed from the Malbak or village funds, collected 
"Maibah"or w ^k ^ ne revenue, little checked as they have been, illus- 
viiiage ex- trate to some extent the village life. In all villages I 
speak from an examination of the accounts of thirty from 
1 to 3, or even 4 per cent, oh their land revenue was spent in alms to 
beggars, gifts to holy men, and the celebration of the principal annual 
festivals. Something was usually paid for the performances, on other 
occasions, of itinerant acrobats and conjurers (natts and kanjars). A 
third item was marriage and funeral gifts to members of the community, 
both proprietors and village servants. A fourth, the maintenance of the 
thara, or building used as the village assembly house and resting-place, 
where the public business of the locality is discussed, and where travel- 
lers and visitors find a night's lodging. In a prosperous village, as much 
as Us. 700 is occasionally spent in one year in building a new or im- 
proving an old thara. The village servants, carpenter, blacksmith, 
washerman, and scavengers are usually paid by a maund or two of grain 
per harvest on each well or house, but the Chumar selected to attend to 
the behests of Tahsil requisitioning sepoys, and sometimes the thara 
waterman and sweeper receive allowances from the village fund. 

Other items would be mentioned more properly under revenue ad- 
ministration, but as the subject of village expenses has been begun it 
may as well be finally disposed of here. 

" Lumbardar's food" or the expenses of the village representatives 
when at Tahsfl headquarters or at Ulwur on village business. The 
amount varied from 1 to 2, and sometimes 3, per cent, on ihejamma. 

" Patwarree's sayer" or stationery allowance to Patwarees, was from 
one to two rupees a harvest. 

" Interest " levied by the state on arrears of revenue at 1^ per 
cent, per mensem, commencing from the fourth day after the revenue was 
due. This seems very severe, but practically the high rate of interest acts 
as a stimulant to punctuality, and very little interest has to be charged. 

The rule of charging interest on arrears seems to have been introduced by 
M. R. Banni Singh's Diwans from Dehli, and cannot be described as un- 
successful or oppressive. At least not as modified when Captain Impey 
was Political Agent at Ulwnr.* He induced the council to direct that 
interest should never exceed one-fourth of the arrears due ; and compound 
interest is never charged. 

" Talabana," or cost of summonses to pay revenue, or to cut a state 
grass preserve (rund), or to appear before a court. The rate is 2 annas 
for each summons in revenue, criminal, and civil cases. In miscellan- 
eous 2 pice. This sum is paid daily until the summons is complied 
with. Three-fourths of the " talabana " at present goes to the mazkuri, or 
summons bearer ; but a committee is considering whether the talabdna 
might not be credited to the state, and fixed regular pay allowed the 
mazkuris, who would not then be interested in delaying the attainment of 
the object of the summons. 

Captain Impey and the council had caused orders to be issued in re- 
straint of village expenses, the limit of which was fixed at a percentage 
of the village jamma. With some modification these orders were lately 
re-afiirmed, thus it has been directed that in future malbah shall not ex- 
ceed on a revenue of 


." . 15 percent, on the jamma or revenue. 


' ?> >j 


' >5 


;> J> 

... ''''-'' M 

* Major Cadell directed a minute inquiry in one tahsil (Tijara) regarding amounts 
borrowed from money-lenders to pay jamma on one harvest. The result was as 
follows : 

44 villages]out of 106 had not borrowed at all. 

13 a villages had borrowed under . ... . BO 

14 ' 










Total borrowed was . . , 19,760 

Interest charged by money-lenders 


Paid on realising crops . 20,151 

Balance due to money-lenders . 1,715 

( 43 ) 

The allowance to Lumbarbars or heads of villages, which in British 
territory under the name of' pachotara is five per cent of 
the jamma, in Ulwur is usually three, and in the Tahsils of 
Katumbar and Bansur for the most part two only. But this two and 
three per cent, is not paid from the " malbah," a collection over and 
above the jamma, or Government demand, but is paid out of the jamma. 
It was felt, considering the responsibilities of the Lumbardars, to be in- 
sufficient, and the council has in consequence recently ordered that 
Lumbardars are to receive two per cent, from the malbah, as well as their 
allowance from the State, provided that the total percentage sanctioned for 
malbah, as above detailed, is not exceeded. An inducement is thus 
held out to Lambardars to put a check on expenditure, which is often 
more for their own glorification than for the good of the village, and 
which often falls heavily on the poorest members of the community, 
although they have no effectual vote or veto. 

The cesses of one per cent, for schools, and one per cent, for dispen- 
Dispensary and saries, is levied by the State, in addition to the jamma, but 

school. j g no t included in the malbah. These cesses were imposed 
by M. R. Sheodan Singh many years ago, and are not directly due to the 
influence of any British officer. 

In all native states officials, when moving about on business, are allowed 

fodder, wood, and earthen pots gratis. This allowance is 

known as kabtib. In Ulwur these necessaries were supplied 

without payment by the villages, except in one tahsil, in which their cost 

was defrayed by the State. 

The council has recently ordered that the practice of payment by the 
State be extended to all the tahsils, and the accounts will be regularly 
forwarded and audited in the Treasury. 

The villagers are in Ulwur, as elsewhere, held to a certain extent re- 
sponsible for the protection of travellers and their goods, and the repression 
of crime, but chaukidars or village watchmen are not generally employed, 
and all the ordinary liabilities and expenses of villages not included in the 
land revenue have, I think, been enumerated, except those connected with 
the cutting of grass preserves, which is elsewhere spoken of. 

The following list shows the extent to which the different castes of 
Foreign Ulwur territory seek military service beyond its limits. It 
service. w [i\ J-JQ geen ^ na ^ the least numerous of the castes, the Raj- 
put Musalmans, contribute many more than any other, and that after 
them come the Khanzadas. This probably is due to the habit of foreign 
service acquired by their ancestors in the time of Musalman supremacy, 
when they met with favour in the imperial armies, and, as perverts, were, 
no doubt, regarded with suspicion by Rajput chiefs : 

Brahmins . 
Thakur Hindti . . . 


In British 



In Infantry. 

35 From several Tehsils. 
26 Chiefly from Manddwar 
and Bdnsiir. 
31 Chiefly Mandawar. 



40 Chiefly Bahror. 



34 do. 






3 Kishengarh. 




Khanzadas . . . . 


17 Tijara. 



34 Tijara 

Thdkur Musalman 
Sakka (water carriers) 
Thirteen other castes . 


4 Mandawar. 
14 Katumbar. 



There are said to be about 200 Uiwur artisans, munshis, and others, 
not of the military profession, in service in British territory. 

3- - ^ 

r jj 


Ci iH 
OJ t^ 


iH CO 


to in 

in (a 

r-l (M 

jH<N<Mo3< o 

(M r-l rH <M 


tOi l 

"oo co" oo o ?5 ?i fS~ 





OOi l^fCO 


CO O> i-l 


IJ < 


C> i-i ci 

( 51 ) 

GC t C> CO CO CC CO CO *1* *f CN C5 




Ol CO CO I s * t>- 00 1ft i?t C 


pH CC 1O C"-l O f CV O 7 

m <O"4< toco cr- 

r-l i-H IM C5 W IM i 

Q CC CM CC Vl O l~ t-X 71 O CO 

3 o 

s E- a 

* ' 


1C t^i It 
t M rj< 


CO t*- ~* C* 00 *O i 

CN i^cc ri -r cj i 

I-H OS IO ' 

MCO i 

tOOOt>-Oi' < C5tOO>OOOOOiC5 

>OO'OOtOCO-.O5> ITJ-r- If-i 
M 1 O i-> ' C^ i 1 I C5 US O O 


i- -f --2 ir: I-H v . i - .-i 

s. M 7 1 

1 i-H 1 

C<5 55 

t rH i-IO CO i-H q 

81 l"-H 
<M t^ 

O3 rH 


l~( C^l * < CO O 





m ~ 

-3 <1 


K 2"** 

w 2 


IO 00 CM i-H rH t^Ti-H 

: oc o c-i t^ CM ci cc t^ 


CO O CN rH i i O) 

eo~ i-T eo't-^co" 

< O <O 

fi <".-: /- -^ 7~ i - i 

*ift GC 4O ^* ^ iO iH 

00_i-H CO CO CM^C^OO 
r-T r-TcOr-T 

o co IN 5< 6> w c> 

O CO OO t ~ S * ^ t^- *-H CO CO C 

O IO IO C>1 CO CO -H GC CO Ci l 















Cultivator! . 





THE Kuldevi or family deity of the Narukas, as also of the Kachwahas 
of Raiputand, is the Jamwahi Mahadevi, whose temple is in 

Hindu deitiea. ' , . ' 

the gorge or the Banganga riiver in Jaipur territory, not tar 
from the south-east corner of Ulwur territory. It was here that Dhola 
Rai, the founder of the present Jaipur State, and subsequently his son, 
are said to have received miraculous aid from Mahadevi when contending 
with Minas and Bargujars. The sons of the Ulwur Chief go in state to 
this temple to have the ceremony of tonsure performed. 

Sita and Ram, however, are naturally the deities to whom most respect 
is paid by Narukas and other Kachwahas, since they claim descent from 
Ram and Sita, whose images are carried with the army, both in Ulwur 
and in Jaipur. Sri Khrishn, too, as his birthplace, Mathura, is so near, 
is also much reverenced by the ruling family and upper class and Baldeo. 
Sri Khrishn's elder brother is in high repute. " Jai Baldeojf !" or " Jai 
Ragundthji!" are the commonest forms of salutation. As regards the 
religion of the mass, an intelligent, well-informed person whom I con- 
sulted estimated half the Hindus to be of the Vishnu sects, one-fourth of 
Shiv, and one-fourth of both. 

The followers of Shiv, amongst whom are included the devotees of 
Devi in all her forms, though in a minority, are a very 
important class. There are no great temples of modern date, 
but there is a very interesting old Shiv temple at a place called " Nil 
Kanth," above the Tahla valley. It is still maintained, though, no 
doubt, not as it once was (see Nilkanth). The Shiv Swamis x or priests, 
of Narainpur in Bansiir, Naldai, a place near Khushalgarh, where 
Mahadeo Shiv manifested himself, the temple called Bakteswar on the 
Baktawar Sagar, all have a reputation. Maharao Raja Baktawar Singh 
and Banni Singh themselves affected the respectable Shakta persuasion 
called Dakshina; but I am afraid that, of all the divisions of Hinduism, 
none is so prosperous at Ulwur as the disreputable Shakta sect known as 
Vdmis. The worst division of the Vamis is called the Kunda Pant/i, 
perhaps the Kuras of Wilson's " Hindoo Sects." The Kunda Panth is said 
to practise all the abominations on account of which Vamis are infamous. 

( 53 ) 

Men of position are believed to be secret members of it; and it is admitted 
on all hands to be making progress. The Kunda Pantkis disregard caste 
rules, and all eat together. 

The Vishnu worshippers in Ulwur, as elsewhere, may conveniently be 
divided into two classes. First, the small learned class, 
consisting mainly of philosophic Brahmins, and called by 
Wilson the orthodox. Second, the sects. The latter, to which the mass 
of the people belong, may, I think, be further subdivided into the four 
11 Sampradiyas " and the " Panths." Of the four Sampradiyas, the most 
numerous are the Ramawats, next to them come the Madhwa-charis, then 
the Nimbawats. The Balba-charis, so numerous in Jaipur, Bikanir, &c., 
are not represented in the city, but they are in the districts. 

The number of temples indicate the relative importance of the different 

R&m&wats . . .10 considerable temples. 

Niinbdwats ... 6 

Madhwa-chari 7 

These Sampradiyas trust in Brahmins many of whom are members of 
them use Sanscrit chiefly, and keep images in their temples. 

The Panthfs, who are regarded as dissenters, prefer vernacular books 
to Sanscrit, have a doctrinal literature of their own, and, Charan Dasis 
and Mohan Panthis excepted, the members of them do not, speaking 
generally, worship images. They are disliked by, and respect little, the 
Brahmins, and they have no temples. There is not, however, a hard and 
fast line between them and the Sampradiyas ; and I have known a man 
arrange to feed Brahmins one day and the Sadhs (holy men) of the Panthis 
the next. The Panthfs he proposed to entertain were 

The Kabir Panthis, Dadu Panthis, Charau Dasis, Ram Snehis, Sat- 
namis, Parnamis, Mohan Panthis. 

The Lai Dasis, who are almost as much a Vishnu sect as the rest, 
although Musalmans belong to it, he did not include, notwithstanding 
that the sect is in Ulwur, I believe, the most numerous of all. 

The founders of the Lai Dasis and the Charan Dasis were born in 
villages near together, and within eight miles of the city of Ulwur. Lai 
Das, at DhaoH Dhub, at the entrance to the valley of Dehra, four miles 
north of the city, and Charan Das at Dehra itself. It is remarkable that 
in the hills overhanging the same valley is the most attractive of the 
Meo shrines known as Chuhar Sidh (see " Fairs "). 

Lai Das is said to have been born of Meo parents in s. 1597 
(A.D. 1540), who, though nominally Musalmau, followed the i'im{ 
observances of the Hindu religion. As Lai Das is the 
chief saint of Ulwur, I will give a somewhat full account of him : 

A biography of Lai Das in verse which came into my hands says that " Lai Das 
entered the world in this 'Kaljng' because God was neglected, and meu in their folly 
worship stones." 

( 54 ) 

Lai Das lived many years at Dhaolf Dhiib, and used to wander over the hills 
behind Ulwur, and into the fort in search of sticks, by selling which he got his living. 
At length he began to work miracles. An excited elephant stopped in full career and 
saluted him, and a Musalman saint, one Chishti Gadan, of Tijara, found him standing 
in the air in meditation. The Musalman conversed with Lai Das, and, discovering 
his piety and unworldliness, enjoined him to teach both Hindus and Musalmans. 
After this Lai Das went and lived at Bandoll, sixteen miles north-east of Ulwur, in 
the Ramgarh " pargana." There " he laboured for his own support and the good of 
others." He lived on the top of a hill, and went through great austerities in the 
hottest weather; was safe from snake and tiger, and cured the sick. Disciples 
collected round him of all castes, and one, an oilman, received from him miraculous 
power, which he used to expose an adulteress before an assembly. For this Ldl Das 
reproved him, and eventually resumed his gift. Lai Das prayed that he might be 
relieved of all his false disciples, so persecution from a Mughal official began, and 
they all fell away. It arose from Lai Das having caused the death of a Mughal who 
had laid hands on another roan's wife; and Lai Das, with his true followers, was 
carried to Bahadarpur, a few miles off. The Musalman Faujdar of Bahadarpur 
expressed surprise at his being followed by both Hindus and Musalmans, and asked 
him what he was. Lai Das replied that the question was a foolish one what he was 
in truth he knew not, but he got his garment, the flesh, in a Meo's house. The Faujdar 
demanded Rs. 5 apiece from the party as the price of releasing them, but they would 
pay nothing, and then the Faujdar gave them water from a poisonous well, the only 
result of which was that the well became sweet, and was known afterwards as " the 
sugar well." On another occasion Lai Das was assaulted by Mughals, and called to 
his protection angels, who slew fourteen of them ; but his followers, thinking that 
anger was derogatory to Lai Das, spread a report that they killed the Mughals, and 
that Lai Das had shown no anger. Lai Das left Bandolf, and resided at the neigh- 
bouring village of Todi, now in Gurgaom, on the Ulwur border, where, being persecuted, 
he went away. At Naroli the people refused him water, whereupon their wells dried 
up.* At Rasgan, in Ramgarh, he was well received, and there he remained a while, 
" repeating God's name, and teaching disciples the way." 

Lai Das, though he at times is said to have practised the severest asceticism, had 
not led a life of celibacy. " He had a daughter, named Sarupa, who could work 
miracles. One day he told her that greatness and wonder-working even were vanity, 
they, too, pass away like the wind ; purity and gentleness alone were availing. Those 
who possessed them would attain to peace in heaven (Har ke lok), and no more be 
subject to birth and death. Lai Das's son, Pahara, too, was a miracle-worker bless- 
ings on him and on Lai Das's brothers, Sher Khan and Ghaus Khan. These all had 
hope in God (Harji) alone, and in no other Deo. A voice in a mosque (? Harmandir), 
where Lai Das had gone, foretold the birth to him of a son, who was to be a polar star 
(" Kutb "), and would succeed in the work of many births. Lai Das received the 
announcement with one word, "Bhala!" A few months after, to try his faith, a 
daughter was born to him, who died directly. Lai Das felt no grief, for God- 
worshippers (Harbhagatan) are always joyful. Soon after God spoke to him again 
of the " Kutb." Lai Das manifested no hurry or anxiety. A second daughter was 
born, and she too died. Lai Das said, " I have faith in God " (Sain ko meri biswas). 

* Naroli is uninhabited ; it was a hamlet of Munpur Karmala of Rdnigarh, Ulwur. 

( 55 ) 

At length a boy, after eighteen months' pregnancy, was born. The child lived but 
eighteen days, but he spoke and reproached his mother for not showing him his 
father. Lai Das was sent for, and spoke to him, whereupon the child died satisfied. 
A faithful Sadh washed and dressed the corpse, and his sister Sarupa besought her 
father to commemorate him by a miracle. The child's body was taken towards 
Bandoli (where, apparently, the infant daughters had been interred). A deep stream 
was in the way ; but, as Sarupa walked forward, a dry path appeared, and the little 
corpse was carried to Bdndoli, where a Dargdh was established, which has still a great 

It was reported to Sahib Hukm, Mughal Governor of Tijara, that Lai Das did not 
pray as a Musalman, nor perform ablutions, nor call on the prophet, but that he taught 
Hindus and Musalmans the same doctrine. The "hakim" sent for Lai Das, who 
received the messengers kindly, and accompanied them with twelve disciples, who 
refused to leave him. A vicious horse which he had to ride became quiet in his 
hands, and a fawn which one of the Musalmans killed, and compelled Ldl Das to 
carry, came to life. 

The Tijdra "hakim" treated Lai Das kindly. But he offered him meat, saying 
that it was Musalman food, and that he who was a Musalman and ate as such was in 
the path of God. Lai Das replied, " Love God. God is one and separate from all. 
There is one path for Hindu and Turk, by which they come and go. Whoever kills 
another cuts his own throat, for the murdered is avenged by God's casting the mur- 
derer into hell. Let me be shown how to escape before the judgment-seat, where 
God himself will do justice. The good keep in mind the fear of that day." 

Ldl Das then took the food into his hand, and the meat turned to fine rice. 

Lai Das and his twelve followers were then confined under a guard for the night, 
but without severity. They all vanished, and the guard was imprisoned for letting 
them go ; on which they all appeared again in the jail. 

Sahib Hukm, the hakim, had a beloved daughter who was tormented by a witch, 
and the necromancers (jadugirs) could do jiothing to relieve her; and Kazis and 
Mulvls could not exorcise the evil spirit. Her mother appealed to Lai Das, and he 
went to the girl, who immediately began to kiss his feet ; and the " demon " (jin) 
having left the girl, appeared before Lai Das and declared his submission. 

In Maujpur (Lachmangarh pargana) was a holy man, Mansukha by name, and 
a Malli by caste, who loved God with a true love (sachhi prit), and gave much in alms. 
He believed in Lai D&s, but his wife disparaged him because he worked no miracles, 
and because he could not avoid being carried off to Tijdra. Mausukha said Lai Das 
knew the thoughts of men. On his going shortly after to pay his respects, Lai Das 
received him badly on account of his unbelieving wife. Mansukha was going sorrow- 
fully away. Ldl Das, however, forgave him, and called him back and comforted him, 
just as a mother takes into her arms and consoles a child whom she has corrected. 

An Agra merchant was shipwrecked. He asked for advice. Some said one 
thing, some another ; but he remembered Lai Das, and called on him, promising him 
a tithe if his goods were saved. Lai Das heard the prayer of the distant merchant, 
and showed emotion. The goods were saved. However, Lai Das refused his thank- 
offering, as he had no need of wealth, but told him to give it to Vishnu Sadhs. 

A Kayath of Agra, of great wealth and of high position, was afflicted by leprosy 
or some foul skin disease, which made life a burden to him. Hearing of Lai Das's 
goodness to the shipwrecked merchant, he went to him at the full moon, Lai Daa'a 

( 56 ) 

chief day of reception. The saint told the Kayath to give all his goods in charity and 
abandon the world. In token of his having forsaken all pride and worldliness, he 
was to blacken his face, mount a donkey, and hang a gourd on his back. He obeyed ; 
and on his subsequently bathing at the junction of the rivers at Allahabad, his body 
became pure as gold. 

Various other miracles of the same type are related in the account of Lai Das, 
who prevents an eclipse of the sun, predicts the famine of s. 1884, feeds NagaCharan 
Das of Mathura, who comes to him with 700 followers. 

The Meos having carried off his buffaloes, Lai Das prophesied that Mewat should 
belong to the Kachw.lchas and their chief Jai Singh. 

Before his death, Lai Das having met with one Thakuria of V. Chapra, who 
maintained himself and fed others out of the proceeds of his own labour, and was blessed 
by God with the necessary virtues, wished to appoint him his successor ; but Thakuria 
declined the honour as being unworthy of it, and Lai Das gave him the choice of 
burial alive or acceptance of authority. Thakuria chose the former. 

According to popular belief, Lai Das died s. 1705 (A.D. 1648), at 
the age of 108, at Nagla, a Bhartpur village on the Ulwur border, and 
was buried eventually at Sherpur, in Ramgarh, Ulwur, where there is now 
a fine shrine. 

Lai Das's sayings have been preserved by his followers, and a few 
extracts from a popular collection called bdni or gutka I subjoin. 
Like all religious books of the kind, it is in verse, and the language is 
simple and familiar. It treats in successive chapters of eight subjects, 
but very briefly ; the verse is flowing and regular. Following each exhor- 
tation are hymns (bhajari) in an irregular metre, which embody the 
teaching, and are adapted for singing. They occupy much the greater 
portion of the bdni. Musalman terms, such as " Kariina," are used, but 
allusions to Hindu mythology are not unfrequent. Some of Kabir's 
Sdkhis are mixed up with the bhajans. The first heading is wor- 
ship (bhagat), and the words of the true Guru (Sabad). It is a general 
exhortation, which is repeated in more detail in the subsequent chapters. 
The book opens with a condemnation of begging ; and the emphasis laid 
upon this point is, I think, the most striking and interesting feature in 
the teaching of Lai Das, who may be regarded as a missionary of industry, 
as the following extracts will show: 

" Lalji Bhagat bhlkh na manghe, 

Mangat awe sharm 
Ghar ghar haudat dokh hai 
Kya Badshah kya Hurm." 

" Saith Lalji, Let not the devotee beg 

Begging is shameful ; 
Wandering from house to house is wrong, 
Even if they be those of kings or queens." 

(That is, begging is begging, even if you beg only from the great and wealthy.) 

( 57 ) 

The second chapter is on the true saint (Sadh), and it too opens in 
the same strain 

" Laljf Sadhu aisa chahiye 

Dhan kaim'ikar kbaf 
Hirde Har kf chdkrf 
Parghar kabhu na jai." 

" Saith Laljf, The Sadh should be one 

Who earns the food he eats ; 
Let God's service be the heart's, 

And go not about begging." 
(That is, these are the two great duties.) 

The Sadh should return good for evil (angun tipar gun kare). lie 
should be candid and bold in speech 

" Sadhu aisa chahiye 

Chaure rahe baja f 
Ki tute ke phir jure 
Man ka dhokha jaf." 

" The Sadh should be one 

Who speaks out plainly ; 

Whether friendship be broken or only interrupted, 
Let there be no delusion." 

He should be lord over his passions (Pdnckon men pat rake) ; he 
should be persistent, resolute not to turn back. These points are dwelt 
on with much force, and are the burden of the third chapter, on mind 
(man) and its restraint. 

The fourth chapter is on respect for the rights and property of others 
(kak), and the spirit which produces it 

" Lalji hak khaiye hak piyiye 

Hak ki karo faroh 
In baton Sahib khushi 
Birla barti kol" 

" Saith Laljf, Eat what is your own, drink what is your own, 

And sell only whatsis your own ; 
For these things are pleasing to God, 
But few observe them." 

He who begs disregards this injunction, for he lives on others. 

" Laljf ghar karo to hal karo 

Suno hamari sfkh 
Dozak we hi jaenge 

Gharbari mange bhfkh 
Kya mangte ka man hai, 

Mange tukra khai ! 

Kutta jun handat phire, 

Janain akarath jai." 


( 58 ) 

" Saith Laljf, If you keep a house, then keep a plough. 

Listen to my teaching 
They will go to hell will 

Those householders who beg. 
What honour has a beggar ? 

One who begs and eats morsels, 
Who wanders begging like a dog, 

His life passes profitlessly." 

Lai Das loses all patience with the mean and insincere when they 
reject counsel, and with a bitterness which is contrary to his usual spirit, 
and which rather shocks a mild Hindu, he says 

" Bahte ko bahjando, 
Mat pakrao thor, 
Samjhaya samjhe nahin, 
De dhaka do aur. " 

" Let the drifting man drift away ; 

Give him nothing to grasp ; 
When warned he would not listen, 
Now give him a push or two." 

The fifth heading is "calmness" (sil), the ornament (sobka) of the 
true Sadh. The sixth is on the true hero, who fights and wins in the 
spiritual battlefield, where the coward crouches and regrets 

" Siira tabhi jauiye, 

Lare dhani ke het, 
Purja pnrjd, ho pare, 
To na chhore khet." 

" Think him only a good soldier 

Who fights for his Lord ; 
Who may be cut to pieces 
But leaves not his ground." 

The seventh is on the true teacher (Satgur), whose vigour, courage, 
and devotion are dwelt on, and who acts on Lai Das's words 

" So dhan Lalan sanchro, 

So age ko hoi, 
Kandha pichhe ganthri, 
Jat na dekha koi." 

" Lay up, says Lai, that treasure 

Which hereafter may avail ; 
With a bundle on his shoulder 
Never was man seen to leave the world." 

The eighth is on greed (lobh, IdlacJi) and its evil. The ninth on 
asceticism (bairdg), but the advantages of prdndydm, practised by other 
sects, are not dwelt on (see p. 62, note), and apparently was not enjoined 
by Lai Das. 

( 59 ) 

The Lai Dasi Sadhs, like Lai Das himself, are family men, and marry 
with Meos, but do not eat with them. The initiatory rites which a con- 
vert has to undergo ought to ensure sincerity. In token of his abandon- 
ment of the world and worldly pride, he has, like the wealthy leper 
mentioned above, to blacken his countenance, to mount on a donkey with 
his face to its tail, and to hang a string of shoes about his neck. A cup 
of sherbet is then given him, and he becomes a member of the fraternity. 
A convert has been known to allow his house to be plundered of all it 
contained ; and besides maintaining himself by his own labour, it is in- 
cumbent on a good Lai Dasi to give of his earnings to others. But these 
are the Sadhs, and are comparatively few. There are large numbers of 
Meos who merely hold Lai Das in reverence as a Pir and a great Meo. 
Repetition of Ram's name, and singing hymns to rude music, seem to be 
the only forms of worship ; but meditation, " keeping God's name in the 
heart," is, I am told, held essential. 

Prdndydm (p. 62, note) is practised by a few Lai Dasis, though, as 
already stated, its necessity was not taught by the founder of the sect, 
and is not common. 

The day before each full moon, and every Sunday, are kept as fasts. 
A meal on those days is made in the evening, when it is a duty to light a 
lamp and keep it burning during the night. 

The Lai Dasis are chiefly Meos, Baniyas, and Kalals, and are most 
numerous in the eastern portion of the State. There are many in Bhart- 
pur, and some further east, whence they come pilgrimages to the Las Das 
shrines in Ulwur. In Firozpur, of the Gurgaom district, there are 
" khatis " (carpenters) and Agarwala Baniyas who follow Lai Das. 
There are two very small Lai Das makdns, or places of worship, in Ulwur 
city, and at the shrines at Sherpur and Bandoli in Ramgarh, Dhaoli 
Dhiib in Ulwur, and Nagla, a Bhartpur village close to Sherpur. Fairs 
are held at those places three times a year. At Sherpur, on Asoj 11 
(October), on Asarh punam (full moon) about July, and on Magh punam 
about November ; at Bandoli two days later, and at Dhaoli Dhub, two 
days later than at Bandoli. The Sherpur fair is attended by 10,000 or 
12,000 the others by 1000 or 2000; and amongst the visitors are often 
merchants of wealth. 

I have ventured to dwell at considerable length on Lai Das and his 
followers, because he belongs peculiarly to Ulwur, within the present 
territory of which he lived and taught, and where his shrines are situated. 
Moreover, so far as I know, there is no printed mention of Lai Das and 
his sect. 

Charan Dasis may be disposed of more summarily, for although 
Charan Das was born at Dehra, near Ulwur, in s. 1760 (A.D. 

7 . v Charan Dasis. 

1703), he, when very young, was taken to Dehli, and does 

not seem to have returned to his native place, or to have taught in its 

neighbourhood. Besides, Professor Wilson, in his " Hindoo Sects," gives 

( GO ) 

some information regarding them, which I need not repeat at length. 
Charan Das was of the Dhusar caste, and, according to the Ulwur account, 
he was a good musician in addition to his other accomplishments. The 
same authority says he died in s. 1839 (A.D. 1782). 

Unlike the other dissenting sects, the Charan Dasis keep images in 
their temples and respect Brahmins, who are found as members of the 
sect. They are spoken of by orthodox Hindus with more respect than 
the other sects are, the four Sampradiyas excepted. Indeed, the Charan 
Basis may be considered to belong to the same category as the Sampra- 
diyas, and I have included them amongst the dissenting sects only on 
account of their attachment to the vernacular. They are not numerous 
nor wealthy in Ulwur territory, where, however, there are ten small 
temples and monasteries, two of which are in the city. Their Sadhs are, 
I believe, all celibate. 

There is one temple at Bahadarpur, where the establishment possesses a 
village, and is better off than the others. A small fair is held at Baha- 
darpur, in honour of Charan Das and his ancestor. 

Another is at Dehra, where there is a monument over Charan Das's 
naval-string, and his garments and rosary are kept at Dehra. 

The remainder are in different parts of the State. 

The Charan Das Gutka or breviary exhibits more Sanscrit learning 
than those of the other sects, and, instead of passing allusions to 
mythology, goes into details regarding Sri Khrishn's family, and merely 
popularises the orthodox Sanscrit teaching. Thus there is a chapter on 
one of the Upanishad and another from the Bhagwat Puran. Its style is 
perhaps more full, expressive, and less involved than other books of the 
class. The Sadhs hold to the vernacular, and some time ago are said to 
have resented an attempt of a learned Charan Dasi to substitute Sanscrit 
verse for the vulgar tongue. In this, as remarked above, is their main 
distinction from the Sampradiyas, which prefer Sanscrit. The Gutka 
contains the Sandeha Sdgar and Dharma Jahdz mentioned by Dr. Wilson. 
One rather striking chapter, professedly taken from some Sanscrit work, 
should be called Nas Khetr's " Inferno." Nas Khetr is permitted to visit 
the hells and to see the torments of sinners, which are described in detail, 
and the sins of each class specified. It is, in fact, an amplification of the 
Puranic account of " Nark," adapted to impress the minds of the vulgar. 
Nas Khetr is then taken to see heaven, and subsequently returns to earth 
to narrate what he has witnessed. 

Both Lai Das and Charan Das quote freely from, or allude respectfully 
, . _ to, Kabir. There are two Kabir Panthi monastic establish- 

Kabir Panthia. 

ments in the city, and members of the sect are found in the 
towns and villages amongst the lower orders. It will not, therefore, be 
out of place to insert something like an abstract of, and to give some 
extracts from, the Kabir Panthi " Gutka," more particularly as he was 
the greatest, and, after Ramanand, the earliest, of the great dissenting 

( 61 ) 

Vishnu teachers ; and the Dadii Pan this, Satnamis, &c., who are repre- 
sented in Ulwur, are but branches of his sect. 

Passages in the little breviary which came into my hands are striking 
from their half- Christian flavour, and would almost seem to have had a 
Christian source. Dr. Wilson touches on them very briefly. 

The verse of the " Gutka," which is small enough to be carried 
conveniently in the pocket, is harmonious, the language easy and familiar, 
the metaphors simple and popular. The mythological allusions are few ; 
indeed Kabir is known to have been dissatisfied with the current doctrine. 
He uses the word " Ram " for God ; but it is said that he declared this 
not to be the slaughtering Ram of the Ramayan. A learned Brahmin I 
consulted said that there was exhibited both in the Kabir Panthi and the 
Dadei Panthi breviary a lamentable ignorance of the precise force of philo- 
sophical terms, words, the property of opposed systems, being used 
indiscriminately. Expressions implying Pantheism sometimes appear, 
while elsewhere vivid faith in a personal God is shown, as in the passage 
on prayer. Orthodox Hindus say the style is assumed to attract the 
vulgar, and the teaching is inconsistent and deliberately false. But 
theistic philosophy would deny the necessity for such an explanation, and 
Kabir, or his spokesman, expresses his deep discontent with the Brahmins' 
metaphysics in the words 

How far have the six systems vainly sought for him ? 

The selections from Kabir's sayings are in thirteen angs^ or 
sections. The first is without a heading; it touches on all the chief 
points. The following is a very imperfect attempt to summarise the 
Gutka accurately, which is not an easy task, owing to the rambling, 
reiterative style : 

Without the Guru, or spiritual teacher, all are helpless. He alone 
can deliver the soul (jiw) from the ocean of sense (bhao sindh), from 
grief, from darkness, from doubt, from the hurts and arrows and net of 
time, from gross impurity, from wearisome births. 

He can bring the soul into the ocean of peace (sukh sindh), into 
calm, purity, and content (sil sauchh santosft) ; he can unite the soul with 
the Deity. 

Seek, then, the pure Guru and Pir, who will cause you to be as a 
lotus floating unwetted in the ocean of evil. 

But none observe the words of Kabir. All are careless, self-igno- 
rant, sporting with useless chaff and leaves. They seek not know- 
ledge, they listen not to the voice of wisdom ; guiltily taking life, and 
pretending to care for the source of life. Why stand praying on one leg 
bribing an idol ? Why become Jogis, and wander far away into woods ? 
God is here beside you. Why waste knowledge in seeking drugs and 
metals for charms ? Can they free you from the noose of time ? 

Strive for knowledge of existiug things (sirisht gy&ni) and of the 
Deity (Brihm qyani). 

( 62 ) 

Avoid the world, which is full of deceit, impurity, and stupidity. 

Restrain the five tats and the twenty-five prikats* 

Force back the mind and the breath (man pawari).^ 

Seek not worldly or sectarian aid (jctgat aru bhekh ki paksli). God 
(Ram) is unaided (nirpaksh) ; be thou so too, or seek the help of Truth 
alone, and abandon lust, anger, pride, avarice (Mm, krodk, mad/t, loWi)\ 
combine knowledge (gyari) with freedom from passion (bair&g). What 
good is the former without the latter ? Man is incomplete without the 
woman. Cling to truth and mercy. " Be kind, be kind, be kind." Be 
not satisfied with formal worship at the fixed times when the gong 
beats, but be worshipping night and day where an unseen gong ever 
calls with a sound like thunder, where there is neither Ved nor Koran 
(bed kited), where the pure Essence rests in the sky depths, and where 
the Sadh in thought dwells. 

So will you escape illusion and gain liberation. 

Few learn the secret of rest and peace. He who tastes it can alone 
realise its comfort. With each breath he drinks in, and is drunk with 
the divine love. He rests in the ocean of God (this is dwelt upon at 
great length). He dwells and sports between heaven and earth (aradh 
aru uradJi) ; there the lotus (the type of purity) floats. 

The Sadh is a brave soldier (stirwdri). He grasps the sword of 
knowledge (gy&n shamsher), he enters the battlefield, he conquers lust, 
he tramps down anger, pride, and avarice. This is no coward's work, a 
devoted hero only can do it. 

* Explained by a Sadh to mean here the five elements earth, air, fire, water, atmo- 
sphere, sky. The twenty-five prikats are the forces of nature as manifested in the natural 
man, as in his emotions and movements. 

t This has reference to a practice called prdndydm enjoined by certain schools of 
philosophy aud the Purdnas to enable the devotee (jogi) to obtain a perfect mastery over 
his passions, and even over elementary matter, and finally, to be united with the Deity. 
It consists in sitting in certain attitudes, fixing the eyes on the point of the nose, and tho 
mind on some aspect or attribute of the Deity, and in breathing very slowly, and in par- 
ticular ways. The orthodox attach the greatest importance to this practice. Not long 
ago one of the principal chiefs in India sent a Brahmin to Ulwur to obtain books on the 
subject from the Raj library. Of the sects, some certainly observe it, thus the Charan 
Dasi breviary dwells minutely on it. The Kabir breviary enjoins it in a general way, but 
gives no detailed instructions, and the Lai Dasi breviary, as already mentioned, does not 
allude to it. Dr. Carpenter has remarked that " there is a very numerous class of persons 
who are subject to what may be termed 'waking dreams,' which they can induce by 
placing themselves in conditions favourable to reverie ; and the course of these dreams is 
essentially determined by the individual's prepossessions, brought into play by suggestions 
conveyed from without. In many who do not spontaneously fall into this state, fixity 
of the gaze for some minutes is quite sufficient to induce it ; and the mesmeric mania of Edin- 
burgh in 1851 showed the proportion of such susceptible individuals to be much larger 
than was previously supposed." This sufficiently accounts for the popular belief in the 
power of prdndydm, but the patience and exercise of the will, which it demands, no 
doubt, often gives it a beneficial moral effect, which strengthens the faith in its value. 
A certain form of it seems to have been practised by some Christian teachers Swedeu- 
borg, to wit. 

( 03 ) 

" The Sadh's work is harder than a Satis, or an earthly warrior's, for the Sati 
suffers but a moment, the warrior only for a short time, but the Sadh must struggle 
day and night ; if he loosens the reigns the least, he falls from heaven to earth." 

" Sadh ka khel to bikat baira mata 

Sati aru sur ki chal age 
Sur gham-sarn hai palak do char ka 

Sati gham-sam pal ek lage 
Sadh sangram hai ren din jhujhna 

Deh pariyant ka kam bhai 
Kahe Kabir tuk bag dill kare 

To ulat man gagan su jamin aL" 

He must, like Bartri, abandon all worldly possessions and pleasures.* 
His must be complete devotion. 

The way is narrow, the pass a thick forest, in it the disciple is en- 
tangled. He is swallowed up in the mud of action, he sinks into the 
depths of hell (nick narak). 

Blame not the Guru if, though listening to him, you keep drink- 
ing the poison of sensuality; acts cannot be destroyed by the bullet 
of knowledge ; whatsoever the seed a man sows, the fruit of it shall 
he eat. 

" The evil is his, he does it ; the goodness is his, he benefits by it. 
He himself brings himself to shore ; he himself brings himself to ruin. 
He immerses himself in the stream of poison ; 
He frees himself from it and dwells on the holy name. 
Saith Kabir, this is all a man's own work. 
He must awake himself. 

Rain may pour night and day, yet it will not penetrate a glazed vessel. 
If the arrow (o f the preacher) fails to pierce a rock, blame not the archer." 

In the three loks (snary, mirat, pdtdl heaven, earth, and hell), one 
woman (Mdya, illusion) has been produced. In her is entangled all 
life. There is one clay and many vessels, one enchantress is manifested 
in all. 

The Musalman Mian talks of slaying and making animals lawful food. 
How will he answer in God's court (dargdJi) ? He will go to hell 
(clozak). Let him kill nothing but his own evil appetites. Let him re- 
peat the pure Kalima ; let him, above all things, keep pity in his heart, 
so shall he reach the Merciful one and Paradise. 

The second any is on the Gurii (or spiritual guide). 

The Guru or Gurdeo should be saluted before Govind or God him- 
self, for he shows the way to Govind ; he lights the Sadh's torch with an 
inextinguishable light. 

* Family life is spoken of with the utmost contempt, as being unworthy of the true 

He who regards the Guru as a mere man is as one who takes the 
elixir for water. He will be born a dog time after time. He will fall 
into hell. From God's anger there is a refuge ; from the Guru's none. 
The Gurii is greater than God, for God's works are on the wrong side of 
the ocean ; the Guru's have passed to the opposite shore. By his favour 
the clouds of love (prem) discharge their water, and suffuse the whole 

The third ang is on the Jatti (or one who has conquered his 

Be a helper of others, desireless, yielding not to anger, resisting the 
six vices, looking on pain and ease as the same, regardless of food and 
drink, firm and persistent in worship, trusting in God (Bhagwari) and no 
other, calm, careful, and content, showing friendliness, and giving honour 
to all, being no respecter of persons. 

He who does thus will be always happy (prapMlat). Seek out such 
an one, and remain at his feet. 

The fourth ang is on the Sati (or pure and truthful one). 

Be full of serenity, knowledge, modesty, and persistency ; a flag of 
piety, wakeful and steady, so shall you be happy and joyous (modit 
parpMlaf). Knowledge is not pride, it gives love (het} for all; the pure 
and true one has regard for others (parsw&rthi}, and respect (ddar bkao) 
for them. 

The fifth ang is on Parmodh (or teaching). 

Let the mind seek instruction (parmodh} and exhortation (updes). 
Control it, and the world may learn of thee. 

But in a false path, robbed by the world, the mind uninstructed, thou 
art involved in the eighty-four lakhs of births ; then thou mayst teach 
others, and thyself fall in the dust, talking like a pundit, but unimpressed 

The sixth ang is on Man (or the mind). 

Follow not where thy mind would lead thee, restrain it and bring it 
back as a weaver the thread. No one carried away by mind can become 
a " Sadh." 

The true road is narrow, and the mind furtive and fickle ; punish it, 
force it back, restrain it and the five passions. They are five powerful 
enemies all combined against the soul alone. With them, how can you 
reach the shore in a boat frail as paper on a stream like the Ganges ? 

Aided by the five virtues calm, content, mercy, long-suffering, truth 
fix your attention on One alone. 

You who were doing well, why have you stopped? why have you 
repented ? If you sow poison, you will reap it. If you sow thorns, will 
you eat rich fruit ? 

The mind is as a deer which wanders into others fields. It takes all 

shapes ; it is fat, it is leau, it is water, it is fire, generous and covetous, 
king and pauper ; sometimes it mounts to heaveu, sometimes sinks down 
to hell. 

The mind is full of vice ; it seeks to please its taste ; it is careless, 
forgetful. It is a wild elephant wandering deep and far, unless it is 
doubly, triply, quadruply bound by the chain of love. 

If the mind is conquered all is conquered. It is a thief; it steals all 
wealth ; it watches, it evades me. It feigns honesty ; it leads away the 
body; it is as a horse carrying off a rider. It is covetous, lazy, trifling. 
Like charcoal, the more you wash it the blacker it is. After days of talk 
the mind remains uufreed, it takes no heed, it is still as on the first day. 

Consult your conscience (man mushriff}, accept what it approves, 
place the mind under a Sadb, make its contentions (Itkatpat) to cease, 
so shall you save your soul. 

The Guru is the washerman, the disciple the cloth, the Deity the 
soap. Washed on the washing-stone, endless dirt comes out. 

The seventh ang is on Krodh (or anger). 

Anger is on all sides like a fierce fire ; the world is a wooden house 
surrounded by it. Fly to the cool neighbourhood of Sadhs and escape. 
Useless as misers' hoards when stolen are clever contrivances. The poor 
in spirit (dlri), the devotee, he alone escapes. 

Abuse is the spark, rage the flame, scorn the smoke. Restrain these 
three and thou wilt gain God. 

The eighth ang is on Kskma (or long-suffering). 

Practise long-suffering and kill anger, then none can injure thee. 
Was Vishnu the worse for Bhrigu's kick (which he bore so patiently) ? 
Where anger exists there are the troubles of time ; where long-suffering 
is, there is the Lord himself. 

The ninth ang is on Chit kapati (or hypocrisy). 

Keep aloof from hypocrisy, which is as the pomegranate bud, with its 
red exterior and white heart. Seek not many friendships ; their fruit falls 
off when an adverse wind blows. Avoid those who have evil thoughts 
of others ; to backbite with friendship on the face is a sin. The field 
of hypocrisy will yield nothing, though mounds of seed be sown in it and 
torrents of rain fall. Hypocrisy has indeed the merit of cleverness, but 
the hypocrite is worse than the worldling. What good is there in a Sadh 
with deceit in his heart, though he bear four rosaries and though he 
humbly bend in worship ? Thus doth the game-killer bend as he runs 
to murder the deer. These three bend much the panther, the thief, the 
bow (all three murderous or mischievous). 

The tenth ang is on Mans ahari (or flesh-eating). 
Consider flesh-eaters demons (rdkas). Associate not with them ; they 
are the lowest caste, even beneath wine-drinkers. Flesh and fish eaters, 


as well as those who love wine, will go to hell. No trace shall remaiu of 
such, nor of thieves, gamblers, and those who waste wealth on women. 
All flesh-eating is equally bad ; there is no distinction between fish, deer, 
and kine. It is dog's food, not man's ; they who eat it shall be cast into 
hell. All the four castes and thirty-six classes thus offend. Brahmins 
eat meat and die, calling on Ram. Sinners sit worshipping, and then 
eat flesh and drink wine. They mark out a place to eat in, they avoid a 
chumar's touch, and then they cook bones in their pot. To God's court 
they shall be dragged by the hair. Whether he believes it or not, he who 
kills shall be killed. Though he bestow in gifts thousands of cows, 
though he go and sacrifice himself at Benares, hell for him is sure. 

When was the Kazi authorised by the Merciful to destroy tokens of 

" The Kazi's son is dead ; is not his heart sore 1 That Lord is Father of all ; He 
cannot approve slaughter." 

" Kabir Kazi ka beta mu a 

Urmen sail pir 
Wa Sahib sab ka pit* 
Bhala na mane bir " 

" The fool thinks it not his own deed, 

He says my ancestors did it : 
But this blood is on thy neck, 
Whoever were thine instructors." 

" Apna kiya na sujhe ahmak, 
Kahe hamare baron kiya 
Yih to khun tumari gardan 
Jin tumko updes diya " 

The eleventh any is on Binti (or prayer). 

"Saith Kabir, I pray with folded hands, I pray, 
O Guide, full of kindness, hear me ; 
Give peace to the holy, 
Mercy, meekness, knowledge." 

" Kabir binwat hun kar jorke 

Sun Gur kirpa nidhdn 
Santon men sukh dijiye 
Ddya gharibi gyan." 

Hear, saints, for thus I pray 

Lord, restrain the demon of death (Jdm), who oppresses Thy slaves. 

For Thine own honour, protect those who seek Thy refuge. 

" Lord, with what face shall I pray ? I feel shame. How can I be pleasing to 
Thee ? I have done evil in Thy sight." 

" Sain kya mukh le binti karun 

Laj awat hai mohi 

Tuj dekliai augun kiya 

Kaisa bhaiin tohi." 

( G7 ) 

" I am evil, I am evil, and Thou, Thou art good. 
Even then though I forsake Thee, do not Thou forsake me." 

" Kabir mujh augun tujh gun, 

Tujh gun augun mujh 
Jo main bisrun tujh kun, 
Tu mat bisre mujh." 

Forsake me not ; for though tens of thousands be met with, Thou art 
more to me than all, though I am to Thee nothing. Why should I sepa- 
rate from Thee and be destroyed ? Where can I take refuge ? Shib, 
Brahm, the Munis and all the Bishis, are not sufficient for me. Think 
not evil, then, against Thy servants ; a lord should be merciful and his 
servants loving. 

" I have greatly sinned, and I cease not from sinning. Thou canst spare me or 
destroy me ; but, O Father (bdpfi), kind to the meek, forgive my transgressions. 
Though a son be undutiful, yet a father (pita) feels shame for him." 

" Kabir augun kiya to bahu kiya 

Kart na man! har 
Bhawe banda bakshiye 

Bhawe gardan mar. 
Kabir augun mere, bapji 

Bakas gharlb nawaj 
Jo men put kaput hun 

Tohi pita ko laj." 

" God is full of good and free from evil, but if I search my heart I find it all 

" Kabir Sain kere bahut gun 

Augun koi nahin 
Je dil khojun apna 

To sab augun mujh mahl" 

I am false ; God is true. 

" I have been sinful from my birth, vicious from top to toe. Thou art the Giver, 
the Deliverer ; may I escape to the refuge of God." 

" Kabir main apradhl janam ka 

Nakb, sakh bhara bikar 
Turn Data dukh banjna 
Sain saran ubar." 

Seize His arm lest thou be swept away in this ocean. 

" Other love is like a well, but Thine is like a sea. To me is the support of Thy 
name. Hear me, merciful 1" 

" Kabir aur prlt to kup hai 
Tuin ho samad saman 
Mohi tek tujh nam ki 
Suniyo kirpa nidlian." 

( 68 ) 

A moment ago my Beloved (Pir) was far off. Take away my sin, 
God ! Destroy doubt and perplexity. 

" God is careful of me, though I am heedless ; I have neglected Him in mind, 
mouth, and deed, and therefore I am a fruitless field." 

" Kabir Sain mera sawdhan 
Main hiin bhaya achet 
Man bach karani na Har bhaje 
Taten nir phal khet." 

In my mind has been neither reliance nor love, nor has my body 
been under control. How then can my confidence in the approval of the 
Beloved one continue? Thou art powerful, my steps are feeble. I have 
accepted an evil condition, and have fallen under a burden. He to whom 
God has given confidence shall never be ashamed, daily shall his confi- 
dence increase. Iron joined to iron by the furnace becomes one piece 
without a seam, so may my mind, which comes of Thee, be united en- 
tirely with Thee. 

"Now, when I find God, weeping I will tell Him all my grief. With my head 
on His feet I will tell Him my tale. When I meet God, and He asks regarding my 
welfare, from beginning to end I will tell all, I will pour out my heart to Him." 

" Kabir abke jo Sain mile 

Sab dukh akhun roi 

Charnon lipar sir dhanin 

Kahun jo kahna hoi. 

" Kabir Sain to milenge 

Puchenge kusldt 

Adi ant ki sab kahun 

Ur antar ki bat." 

Thou knowest the heart, Thou supportest the soul. Without Thee I 
shall sink in the fathomless ocean of sense, but by Thy mercy and com- 
passion I shall cross to the other shore. 

The twelfth ang is on the S&dk (or monk). 

The Sadh is one God-loving, without vice, without desire, without 
foes. The true Sadh is rare, like the sandal amongst trees, like the pearl 
in the ocean, like the lion among beasts. Sacks full of rubies are not 
met with, nor are bands of true Sadhs. 

As the sandal-wood retains its coolness though covered with snakes, 
the Sadh remains holy though millions are unholy. 

To him who knows God, sport and jesting are unlawful. Illusion, 
temples, and women they avoid. As the lion shuns the dead carcase, so 
the Sadh, the spiritual carrion ; as the lotus on the river, so the Sadh in 
the world ; as the moonlight shines in the water, but is not of it, so the 
Sadh amongst men. 

( 09 ) 

The fourth lok (or highest heaven) is great and mysterious, but the 
Sadh reaches even the fifth, the abode of God. The way of the Sadh is 
like the edge of a sword, like climbing a lofty palm. 

It is good for Sadhs to sit still. Though running water is pure, and 
stagnant often foul, yet stagnant water is pure too if it be somewhat 

What is the Sadh's sport? Where do his thoughts wander ? What is 
the fountain of immortality? What is the wound of the sword? 

Long-suffering is the Sadh's sport, his thoughts wander in goodness. 
God is the fountain of immortality, the Word gives the sword's wound. 

" When the earth and sky disappear and the mountains be destroyed ; 
When all is rolled together, where will God's servant dwell ? 
Let all be rolled together, let the mountains be destroyed. 
Let earth and sky disappear, in Me is my servant." 

" Kabir dharti ambar jaenge 

Biusenge Kaulas 
Ekam eka hoigi 

Tab Kahan rahenge das " 

" Kabir ekam eka hon de 

Binsan de Kaulas 
Dharti ambar jan de 
Homeu mera das." 

Parcka (or union) is the last ang. (This is on the highest of spiritual 
conditions, that of complete union with God.) When thought and sight 
are one (surat, nirat), when all sorrow has passed away, for love has dis- 
closed the Merciful One. Now there is perpetual spring, the water of 
immortality flows, the lotus blooms, the bright light shines, the Beloved 
One is reached. 

(The subject of union is dwelt upon at considerable length with 
much ecstatic fervour.) 

There are two small mak&ns of DAdu pantkis in Ulwur, and a large and 
wealthy one at Rajgarh, but the sect will be more properly 
described in the " Gazetteer of Jaipur," where the persuasion 
took its rise, and where, at least, the military portion is very important. 
The Satnamfs, who have a makdn in Ulwur, are likewise a Jaipur sect, 
for the founder first taught at Kasli, near Sikar. Both the Dadii- 
panthis and Satnamfs are offshoots of Kabi'r's sect. The Mohan Panthfs, a 
Deccan sect, and the Parnamis, a Gujarat one, and Ram Snehis an 
Ajmir sect of some note, are also represented in Ulwur, but are unim- 

There are five considerable temples of Jains and Saraogis in the city, 
and about 400 families. Half are said to be Agarwalas, and 
about half the remainder Khandelwals, the rest Uswals and 
Sahalwals, all trading castes. 

( 70 ) 

About six years ago, during the excitement caused by the interposi- 
tion of the British Government between the Chief and his Thiikurs, an 
attempt by a Vishnu fanatic to take possession of a Saraogi temple at 
Rajgarh was made; and, as the Saraogis were weak and somewhat 
depressed, it would probably have been successful, had not the Political 
Agent and leading Thakurs insisted on the Vishnawis leaving the temple. 
Since then the Saraogis have held their heads higher than formerly, but 
they are quite inoffensive. However, there is, no doubt, a strong feeling 
of animosity in Ulwur between Saraogis and Hindus stronger, it is said, 
than that which exists between Hindu and Musalman, or between Shiah 
and Sonnee, or Vishniiite and Shivite. 

The great majority of the Musalmans of Ulwur are Meos ; but, as 
already remarked (see Meos), they are in their habits half 
Hindu. In their villages they seldom have mosques, thus 
in Tijara, out of fifty-two Meo villages, only eight have mosques, but 
almost always they have the same places of worship, temples excepted, as 
their Hindu neighbours possess namely, a " Pdnch Pira" a " Bhaiya" 
and a "Ckakund." The " Panch Pira," found everywhere in Mewat, 
in both Hindu and Meo villages, is a spot consecrated to the five 
chief Musalman saints, to whom the Hindus are perhaps attracted, 
because their number tallies with the " Pdnch Than" or deities of their 
own worship. The Pdnch Pira place is marked by a stone set up near a 
tank. The Bhaiya consists of a platform, with stones placed on it so as 
to protect a lamp. It is also called the Bhomia, and is sacred to the 
guardian spirit of the locality. The Chahund or Khera Deo, a similar 
platform, is devoted to Maha Devf, at whose shrine bloody sacrifices are made. 

Their great Musalman saint is Salar Masaud, who was, it appears, the 
son of one of Sultan Mahmiid Ghaznf s chief generals. His tomb at 
Bahraich, in Oudh, is the Meo's grand shrine ; and even here they remain 
connected with Hindus, some castes of which look upon this tomb as 
their chief object of reverence.* A biography of the saint, called " Mirat- 
i-Masaiid," is extant, and copious extracts from it are to be found trans- 
lated in Elliot's " Musalman Historians," vol. ii. p. 513. The banner, or 
" Saldr" of Masaud is worshipped in every Meo village at the Shab-i-rat ; 
and the right of making or of sharing in the offerings to it pertains to the 
low-caste servants of the village proprietors. It has, however, rivals in 
the flag of Madar Sahib, a saint of Makanpur, near Allygarh, and that of 
the Khwaja Sahib from Ajmir, which go round to certain villages to 
collect money. The Saldr flag often has a figure upon it, but the others 
have not, and are more strictly of the religious colour. A boundary 
dispute is often settled, with the consent of both parties, by a Meo taking 
a Saldr in his hand and walking along what in his opinion should be the 
border line. 

* Vide Sherriug's Hindoo Tribes, p. 300. 

( 71 ) 

The Saiyads of Khairthal and Bahadarpur, and of one or two other 
villages, the Musalman Rajputs of Mandawar, the Khanzadas, and other 
Musalmans in the service of the State, and a few Khanzada proprietors, 
form the respectable Musalman population. The old buildings in the 
neighbourhood of Tijara, Ulwur, and elsewhere, testify to the wealth of 
Musalmans when Pathans, Khanzadas, or Mughals ruled the country, 
and when Miillas of great note resided at Ulwur (see page 11) ; but there 
are no considerable Musalman buildings of recent construction, nor any 
teachers of note, though often an itinerant preacher comes and stays 
a while to preach and make a purse, and sometimes he is a man of some 
note. Once lately a Wahabi teacher came, but his doctrine was distaste- 
ful. He gave much offence, and met with no encouragement. The 
Sheeahs are in a very small minority, but they possess one mosque in the 
city, where there are twelve altogether. They get on well enough with 
the Soonees, and the two sects often intermarry. 

Fairs are, I believe, always held ostensibly for some religious purpose, 
except when established by British authority, so it is un- Fairs and 
necessary to attempt the separation of the religious and 
commercial. The following are the principal : 

City of Ulwur, the Ganger, and the Sawan tij, well-known festivals 
in honour of Mahadevi, held in March and August. One to 
Jaganath in Asarh (July); one to Sahibji (God?), a shrine near 
the city, on the Tijara road. 

Chuhar Sidh, in the Dehra pargana, eight miles north-west of the 
city, on the Shiv Ratri festival in February. It is held in 
. honour of a Meo saint (see below). 
Bilalf, in Bansur, on the Jaipur border, in Chait and Baisakh (March 

and April) x in honour of Sitla Devi (the smallpox deity). 
Rajgarh, Jaganath's festival in Asarh (July). 
Silleserh. The lake eight miles from Ulwur, in Baisakh (March), in 

honour of Sitla Devi. 
Kundalka, in Thana Ghazf, in honour of BhartaH, in Baisakh and 

Bhadon (March and August). 
Ghasaoli, in Kishengarh, in honour of Sahibji (God ?), in Bhadon 

Palpur, in Kishengarh, Mali, Baisdkh, Jeth (December, March, 

June), in honour of Sitla. 
Dahmf, in Bahror, in months of Chait and Asoj (March and 

October), in honour of Devi. 

At Macherf, in Rajgarh, during Chait (March), in honour of Devi. 
Barwa dungri, Baldeogarh, in Thana Ghazi, in honour of Narayanf, 

during Baisakh. 

Sherpur, in Ramgarh, in Asoj, Asarh, and Magh, in honour of Lai 
Das, regarding whose shrines see pp. 153, 154, 157; regarding 
Charau Dasf's shrines see p. 60. 

( 72 ) 

Of the above, the most important are the Ulwur fairs, aud those at 
BilaH and Chuhar Sidh. It is said that 80,000 persons assemble at each 
of the two latter. 

BilaH is on the Jaipur border, and attracts probably more people from 
Jaipur than from Ulwur territory. But Chuhar Sidh is in the heart of 
the State, in a range of hills west of the city, and has some special interest 
as being the chief fair of Mewat. It is attended chiefly by Meos ; and 
the presentation of the offerings, the vast, though not very lively, crowd, the 
trafficking, and the beggars, are a curious sight. So necessary is attend- 
ance at it considered, that many villages own a few yards of encamping- 
ground on the hillside near the shrine, which is situated high up among 
the hills, beside a stream which, usually only a rill, in the rains acquires a 
considerable volume, and is regarded with much veneration by the Meos. 

Chuhar Sidh is said to have been the son of a Meo by a Nai woman, 
and to have flourished in the reign of Aurangzeb. He was born at 
village Dhaneta, and left home through fear of the tax collectors, who 
were torturing people to obtain revenue. He gained his living by watch- 
ing cornfields and grazing cattle in villages near the city of Ulwur, and 
is said to have received the power of working miracles from the Musalmau 
saint, Shah Madar, whom he accidentally met. Eventually he took up his 
residence on the site of the present shrine. Unlike Lai Das, he does not 
seem to have been a teacher ; but his shrine attracts more pilgrims than 
any of those sacred to Lai Das. 

In 1875 a curious example occurred of the mode in which new places 
of pilgrimage become established. The Tahsildar of Ramgarh, a very 
intelligent man, relates that at village Jahanpur, after the commencement 
of the rains, water began to flow from underground into a tank which had 
before been dry. The Hindus declared it was the subterranean Ganges, 
and the Meos that it was the Chuhar Sidh. The water was pronounced 
to have healing properties, and in a very few days people flocked to bathe 
in it. From every house in the town of Ramgarh, about eight miles off, per- 
sons went to the holy spot ; and" people came not only from the neighbour- 
hood, but from Narnol, Gurgaon, Bhartpur, and even Hatras and Aligarh. 

On July the 18th, that is, not a mouth after the discovery of the 
wonder, the Tahsildar visited the spot. He found " thousands of men 
going and hundreds returning from the so-called Ganges." Many of the 
visitors left after bathing and securing a store of the precious water to 
carry away with them ; but the Tahsildar found more than 10,000 present 
with 200 carts (bailis), besides horses and camels. The bathers in the 
tank, which was about half an acre in extent, were blind and diseased 
persons chiefly, and they " were so strong and firm in their belief that 
they fell one on the other to take a dip in the fountain, as if they would 
surely succeed in their longings." The blind were said to be especially 
benefited ; and the Tahsildar interrogated more than one who declared he 
had derived great advantage from the water 

( 73 ) 


The late Maharao Rajd Sheodan Singh deserves the credit of having 
instituted a school cess of one per cent, on the land revenue, and of having 
established village and Tahsilf schools, which in A.D. 1870 were said to 
contain 2200 students. Bat this cess, after all educational expenses had 
been defrayed, yielded the Maharao Raja an annual profit of Rs. 5500, and 
the schools were much neglected. 

On the establishment of the Council of Administration in A.D. 1870, 
the educational department was reorganised, and efforts made to infuse 
life into the schools, which much needed it. 

The Ulwur High School was established by the late Maharao Raja 
Banni Singh in A.D. 1842. It was formerly located in the cenotaph of 
Maharao Raja Bakhtawar Singh, whence it was removed in November 1873 
to a fine and suitable building erected for it just outside the principal 
gate of the city. The number of boys belonging to it was 310 in December 
1875. No boys from it have as yet passed the University entrance exami- 
nation, but it is progressing satisfactorily. 

In January 1871 the Thakurs' school was established for the sons of 
Thakurs and other native gentlemen. There are 86 boys in it, and a 
boarding-house is attached, wherein 20 boys are lodged. Admission to 
the Thakurs' school is regulated by the Council of Administration. There 
are 11 Tahsili schools, in two of which those of Tijara and Rajgarh 
English is taught. In the Tahsili schools it is proposed to place small 
libraries. The village schools number 84. 

A small normal school for village schoolmasters has been established, 
and three standards of proficiency arranged. But little has been as yet 
done by the normal school. 

The village schoolmasters are in three grades, and receive from Rs. 5 to 
Rs. 15. Surveying with the plane table is to be taught in some of the 
village schools, and the practical approximate object aimed at is gradually 
to place the cultivators less at the mercy of the Patwarrees. 

There are some girls' schools, but of their condition little is known. 

In 1874 fees were for the first time levied in all but the Thakurs' 
school, from boys whose parents did not contribute to the one per cent, 
fund. The effect was to reduce the students largely. But at the end of 
1875 there were 3124 boys belonging to the schools, which is within ten 
per cent, of the number on the rolls before fees were taken. 

The expenditure on education for 1874-75 was Rs. 34,292, of which 
Rs. 19,240 was contributed by the one per cent. fund. 

Indigenous schools called " chatsals " and "maktabs" the first 
Hindi, the last Persian exist. There are in the city 20 chatsdls and 11 
maktabs, with an average attendance of 18 and 11 respectively. 

Chatsals mostly only teach the multiplication table and first two rules 
of arithmetic. A few teach the first four rules and single rule of three, 


but none use books. Reading and writing is taught on " pattas," or 
pieces of boards. 

In maktabs Persian primers (inchas), the Karima, and Gulistau are 
taught ; also elementary Persian grammar and letter- writing, and in some 
the Bostciu and Anwari Suheli are read, but no arithmetic at all is taught. 


Of late years the number of shops where books are sold has increased, 
and there are now five in the city of Ulwur. They obtain their supplies of 
books from Dehli. None are exclusively bookshops, and I cannot discover 
that the total number of books sold is greater than it was six years ago. 

Apparently the popular literature shows little trace of European 
educational influence. A very few books directly due to British action 
find a place in the bookstalls, but none of them sell readily. Perhaps a 
fuller examination than I have made would reveal a greater effect than is 
readily apparent, although not always directly favourable to progress. 
Thus the introduction to a rather voluminous but easy abstract in Hindi 
of a Purau not of Ulwur authorship, but recommended by an Ulwur 
Pundit urges that young Hindus should receive the same early intelli- 
gent training in the tenets of their religion which young Christians obtain 
in theirs ; and the book in question was intended as an aid to that train- 
ing. Setting aside the elementary educational books, those most sold at 
the shops are romances in which Rajas figure (" Hordhaj " is a type of 
this class), accounts of wonder-working devotees like the " Pahldd Chari- 
tra" astrological books like the " Sanichar ki Katha" and religious like 
" The Thousand Names of Vishnu." I do not know of any printed copies 
of the bdnis and gutkas already spoken of, nor of the local poems I have 
mentioned (page 15, note). Those families who have preserved old diaries 
and note-books such as some alluded to (pages 11, 130) have not induce- 
ment nor inclination to print their books. 

Munshi Kanji Mai, inspector of schools, was kind enough to compile 
for me a list perhaps not quite complete of the works produced at 
Ulwur within his recollection. Most were written in hopes of reward 
from the Chief. They are nineteen in number, but only four have been 
printed or lithographed ; * the rest are in manuscript. None can be called 

* The printed ones are 

(1.) The Gal Prakash, a treatise on plane and spherical trigonometry, by Nildmbar 
Ojha, one of the chief Jotishis of the State. Printed at Benares. 

(2.) The Sheodan Bakht Bilas, a poem in praise of M. R. Sheodan Singh, by a Raj 
Brahmin. Lithographed at the Raj Press. 

(3.) Sharh Dasatir, a translation of a Parsee sacred book, by Mulvi Najaf All, formerly 
in the Ulwur service. 

(4.) Risdla Shatranj, a treatise on chess, by Hakim Surtdn Singh, of the Raj service. 

Among the manuscript poems, there is one on the battle of Alaonda, one on Banni 
Singh and Balwant Singh's contest, and a third on the " Rdm dal" of 1870. 

( 75 ) 

The contents of the library of a literary Thakur will give a good idea 
of the popular taste. The one of which I obtained a description consisted 
of fifty-seven Hindi books. It had no Sanscrit ; for the Thakur, although 
something of a poet himself, had no knowledge of any language but 
his own vernacular. 

Seventeen of these books were on the art of ornamental and correct 
writing of the various kinds of verse. The " Kabi Priya" (the poet's 
friend) and " Brind sat sai" (the 700 verses of Blind, showing every 
kind of metre) are types of this class. 

Eleven books were on the emotions and passions (the sexual more es- 
pecially), and on the characteristics of women, as " Ras Rdj" (the chief 
of the emotions), "Ras ratan" (the jewel of emotion). 

Seven were biographical or epic poems, as the Pirthwi Raj Rdsa, Sujan 
Ckaritr (acts of Suraj Mai of Bhartpur). 

There were four romances about benevolent Rajas, distressed Brah- 
mins ; three dictionaries or encyclopaedias, as " Guldb Kos (the treasury 
of Gulab), three miscellaneous selections (phut-kdr), two on singing, 
two on wisdom (gydri), a play called Hir Ranja ko Kkiydl (Hir was a 
Raja of Hazara, who, as a Fakir, won Hir, daughter of the Raja of 
Jhang Siyal), a riddle-book, and a jest-book (tarak tarowar). There 
were a few standard works besides, such as the Rdmayan, the Prem 
Sdgar, &c. With two exceptions, the Kaiwdt and Prem Sdgar, all were 
in verse, even the dictionaries ; and, with two exceptions, all were in 
Pingal or Eastern poetic dialect ; those two exceptions were in the Dingal 
or Western dialect, prevalent in Marwar and Ajmfr. 

Major Cadell discovered, three years ago, that the multitude of obscene 
books which were in circulation was one of the causes of the dislike among 
respectable natives to female education. Steps were taken to repress the 
sale of such books in Ulwur, and representations were made which drew 
attention to the matter elsewhere. 



WITHIN the last four years municipalities have been established in the 
towns of Ulwur, Rajgarh, and Tijara. The members are partly official, 
partly non-official. 

Octroi dues are found more popular than a house-tax, which was for- 
merly levied. The rates are the same for the three municipalities. The 
Council examines the annual budget of each year before its commence- 
ment and the report on work done at the end. 

The octroi rates and revenue for 1874-75 and the trade of the three 
towns is shown below 






Duty per Maund. 



a | 








< o 














Grain (all sorts) 

6 pies 








Tobacco (all sorts) . 

10 annas 








Til, sarson (oil seed) 

1 anna 








Cotton (cleaned) 

2 annas 









11 ,, 








Khand ) Sugar 









Gur, Shakar j Rice 


2,259 20,'453 





Ban, munj, san, &c. (fibres) 

1 " 








Piece goods . 

( 1 pie in the ) 
1 rupee J 








Salt (all sorts) 

1 anna 








Ghee .... 

8 annas 







Total . 




Siwai . 








" The manufacture of iron was in former times a great industry in 
the State, as is testified by the large hillocks of slag which are to be found 
in all directions; but it has fallen off greatly of late years, the value of 
the native iron having been greatly lessened by the large quantities 
imported from Europe." 

Formerly there were 200 smelting furnaces, but there are now only 37 
at work, which are calculated to turn put 18,500 maunds (660 tons) a year. 
They consume 148,000 maunds (5285 tons) of charcoal, to make which 
592,000 maunds (21,142 tons) of wood are required. " This quantity of 
wood, if sold, would probably realise a larger sum than the profit to the 
State yielded by the furnaces," namely 

37 furnaces, on which royalty to the amount of Rs. 185 each per 

annum is charged, about .... 6850 

Licence to cut wood at Rs. 1-8 an axe 2450 


" But a great number of people depend on this industry for their subsist- 
ence, so it would not be right to discourage it." 

About 90 maunds a year of copper used to be yielded by the mines 
within the State ; but since the substitution of British coin for the 
cumbrous State " takka," the value, and consequently the production, of 
copper has declined. The State takes one-third of the copper as royalty " 
(see "Mines and Quarries"). 

There are no other manufactures in Ulwur of much account. 

The stone- work is mentioned further on. Turban (cMra) dyeing is 
said to be as good at Ulwur as anywhere. Firelocks, called " dhamaka," 
both flint (toraddr) and match (ckdpddr), sold for Rs. 25 each, are made 
especially well at Macheri, the cradle of the Ulwur ruling family. A 
good deal of paper is made at Tijara, and inferior glass, from a peculiar 
earth, a few miles east of the city. The Raj artificers are skilful, but their 
work is chiefly for the Darbar, and they are noticed under that section. 

The following statement for 1873-74 shows the imports imports and 
and exports, and also the customs dues : exports. 







.Mill! 1.1..-. 

Duty per Maund. 






















Grain . 

1 pie 





1,410 7 




Cotton (uncleaned) 

4 annas 





812 137 




,, (cleaned) . 











Sugar ( 1 -t sort) 











,, (2d sort) 


30, 7 '1 









Goor (molasses) . 






















Salt ... 











Ghee . 











Piece goods . 

f 6 pies per) 
\ rupee ) 
























Miscellaneous . 






* The rate is now 8 annas. 

f The rate is now ; annas. 

( 78 ) 

Cotton goes in large quantities to Ffrozpur, a considerable market- 
town in the Gurgaon district, near the British border. 

The railroad is not much used for conveyance of cotton from Ulwur at 
present, but the sugar, rice, salt, and piece goods all come by railway. 

The principal places of import and export are Ulwur and Rajgarh on 
the railway ; Ramgarh aiid Lachmangarh off the railway. 

There does not appear to be much scope for the investment of capital 
Capital and i n TJlwur ; but it is possible that the railway may develop 

interest. a considerable trade in stone from the quarries near it. 

Interest is at varying rates ; that paid by agriculturists being, I be- 
lieve, the highest. Baniyas usually add |- anna in the rupee when lending 
money ; that is, loans are issued at more that three per cent, premium. 

In repayment, if in kind, ^ anna in the rupee is uncounted. Thus, 
for a loan of Rs. 8, the borrower would be charged Rs. 8-4, but Rs. 8-4 
when actually paid would still leave 4 annas due. The rate of interest 
is sometimes four per cent, a month, without compound interest, sometimes 
2 annas in the rupee is taken as six months' interest, after which com- 
pound interest is charged. There is, however, a rule, binding on the Ulwur 
Courts, that the interest of a debt should never exceed the principal, aud 
decrees are made accordingly. 


On the 14th September 1874, the section of the Rajputana Railroad 
from Dehli to Ulwur was opened ; and on the 6th December following, 
trains ran from Dehli through to Bandikui. The line runs from north to 
south through Ulwur territory, dividing the State almost exactly in half. 

There are within the State six stations, which, beginning from the 
north, are as follows : Ajerika, Khairthal, Barwara, Ulwur, Mala Khera, 
Rajgarh. Two considerable bridges have been built on the line, one about 
four miles north, and the other a little further south of Ulwur. 

The railway was constructed under the direction of Major Stanton, R.E., 
Superintending Engineer; and Mr. Buyers, C.E., Executive Engineer. 

Captain Impey, when Political Agent, did much towards improving 
communications. The most necessary roads were made or greatly im- 
proved, and arrangements made for rendering the border passes safe. 

The following is a list of the passes and guards. Most of the latter 
Border passes, were established by Captain Impey and the Council : 


a cai 
dawar and Mandan 

Jamadars Sepoys 

(1) Gflot (Mandan), a cart-road between Man- f On R.. 7 a month. On RS. 4 a month each. 

*\ Jamac 

I On Rs. 7 a 

J 1 


(2) Belni (Mandan), a cart-road to villages in broken 

ground at foot of hills . . . ... ... 5 

(3) Giiti (Bahror), a cart-road between Bahror 

and Kot Putli 1 7 

( '79 ) 


(4) Nalota (Bahror), a cart-road between Bahror \ Jamadars Sepoys 

and Patiala territory, continued to Patan v On Rs. 7 a month. onRs. 4 a month, 

and Nim ka Thana . . . J 1 ... 6 

(5) Banhar (Bahror), a cart-road between 

Bahror and Ndrnol . 

(6) Mahrajwas (Bahror), a cart-road be- 

tween Bahror and Narnol . 

(7) Nibhor (Bahror), a cart-road be- 

tween Bahror and Narnol 

(8) Sanoli (Bahror), bridle-path between Bahror 

and Shahjahanpur .... 

(9) Gatoka ka Johar (Bansur), near Baragaom, 

cart-road between Narainpur and Pragpiira, 
Jaipur, much used at time of Bilali Fair 

(10) Ratanpura (Bdnsiir), bridle-road between Na- 

rainpur and Pragpura 

(11) Kirana (Bansur), cart-road between Narainpur 

and Pragpura .... 

(12) Mot! ki Piao (Bansur), cart-road between 
Bansur and Narainpur. It is on the Dehli 
Jaipur road . . . . , 

(13) Deo ka Dera (Bansur), a cart-road between 

Bansur and Kot Putli . . ; ^ 

(14) Barwali Ghatti (Thana Ghazi), near Bijjipura. 

Difficult bridle-path over hills, between 
Maluthana, Ulwur, and Panclmdala, Jaipur . 

(15) Bandrol (Thana Ghazi), cart-road between 

Thana Ghazi and Bairat of Jaipur . 

(16) Garh Basai (Thdna Ghazi), cart-road between 

Thana Ghazi and Bairat of Jaipur . 

(17) Suratgarh (Thana Ghazf), footpath between 

Thana Ghazi and Partapgarh, with difficulty 
passable to horses .... 

(18) KarrAtha (Thana Ghazi), bridle-path between 

Thana Ghazi and Partapgarh 

(19) Mori ki Ghatta (Partapgarh), cart-road be- 

tween Partapgarh and Ajabgarh 

(20) Ada Kot (Ajabgarh), cart-road between 
Ajabgarh and Baldeogarh . 

(21) Gola ka Bas (Ajabgarh), near Bhangarh, cart- 

road between Ajabgarh and Sainthal in Jaipur 

Sowers of Barod 
without horses. 



Under Thakur of 

Baragaom, and 

supplied by him. 

Men furnished by 
Thakur of 



Sowers (2 

mounted), 2 





( 80' ) 


(22) Gdtira (Rdjgarh), cart-road between Thdna ^ Jamadars Sepoys 

Tahla and Gudha, in Jaipur ; Rera, on the > on RS. 7 a month. On R. 4 a month, 
border, a very bad Jaipur village J ... ... 8 

(23) Got (Rdjgarh), cart-road between Rdjgarh and 

Baswa, in Jaipur . . . . ... ... 4 

(24) Chhind (Rdjgarh), bridle-path between Rdj- 

garh and Reni . . . . ... ... 6 

(25) Mdcheri Ghatta (Rdjgarh), bridle-path be- 

Rdjgarh and Mdcheri . . . ... ... 4 

(26) Adoka (Rdjgarh), cart-road between Rajgarh 

and Lachmangarh . . . . ... ... 4 

These guards occasionally recover stolen cattle, but their duties are 
not now onerous. 

After the departure of Captain Impey, the roads were much neglected, 
but were taken vigorously in hand on the establishment of the 
Council of Administration in 1870. Major Cadell devised a complete 
system of railway feeders, and in the beginning of 1876 their condition 
was as follows : 

(1) Ulwur to Bhartpore boundary, vid Behdla and Baroda, twenty-three miles. 
Road completely finished and metalled, and works carried out in excellent style. 

(2) Ulwur to Gurgdon district, vid Rdmgarh and Nogaon. Earthwork will be 
finished before rains. 

(3) Ulwur to Kishengarh. Earthwork completed. 

(4) Khairthal, vid Kishengarh to Tijdra, about four miles metalled. Earthwork on 
remainder completed, arid most of the " kankar " collected. The road may be finished 
before the rains. 

(5) Tijdra, towards Firozpur Jhirka. Earthwork will be finished before rains ; 
one bridge built. 

(6) Lachmangarh, vid Mojpur to Mdla Khera, giving access to stone quarries. 
Four miles earthwork completed ; remainder of earthwork about two-thirds done, 
and will be finished before rains. 

(7) Mojpur to Rdjgarh. Will be commenced when No. 6 is finished. 

(8) Khairtal to Harsora, Bahror, and Bdnsur. Work not commenced. 

(9) Mdla Khera to Ghdzi kd Thdna. This road would pass through such a diffi- 
cult country, that, instead of it, one is contemplated from Bdnsur, vid Narainpur, 
Ghdzl kd Thdna, and Ajabgarh, to the Jaipur border on the way to Dowsa, thereby 
opening up the tract of country to the west of the hills. No definite resolution has, 
however, yet been come to, the question being still under consideration. 


Of the iron Major Cadell wrote in 1873 : 

There are now thirty iron-smelting furnaces at work in the State, and they yield 
about 15,000 maunds, or 536 tons, of iron per annum. Each furnace is filled and 
emptied once in twenty-four hours, the " shoree " (or bloom ball, as puddlers would 
call the lump of iron) being taken out of the furnace about twenty hours after the fire 

is lighted and the bellows commence to blow, the remaining four hours being taken 
up in inserting new " twyere " pipes, repairing damages, and reloading the furnace. 

The building is simply composed of a centre wall built of mud and stone, or 
sun-dried bricks plastered with a mixture of earth and cow-dung. In front of this 
wall the smelting-furnace is placed. 

The following plans and sections show the construction and dimensions of the 
stnel ting-furnace 

Vertical Section. 



//" 1'5" 11" 

It takes thirteen maunds (520 Ibs.) of iron ore and eleven maunds (440 Ibs.) of 
charcoal to load the furnace, the ore and charcoal being put on in alternate layers. 
Before loading the furnace, an earthern twyere pipe is inserted from the back of the 
wall into the furnace, and two bellows, worked generally by women and children, are 
inserted into the twyere. 

A fresh twyere pipe is used with each load ; and when all but two inches of it is 
burnt away, it is known that the iron has collected into a mass at the bottom of the 
furnace. The natives call this lump of iron a "shoree." Prior to removing it, the 
clay with which the lower part of the furnace is covered in (marked A in the above 
plan) is broken through. The burning charcoal having been raked out, the " shoree " 
is drawn out in a state of red heat by two men. The " shoree " is cut in two imme- 
diately on its withdrawal and while still red-hot. A deep incision is first made into 
it by two men with sharp-edged hammers ; a wedge is then inserted, and the lump, 
which generally weighs from 3 to 2 maunds (200 to 280 Ibs.), is speedily severed 
with the assistance of four hammermen. 

The two halves are then placed in the refining or puddling furnace, and after 
being brought to a white heat, are taken out, and cut and beaten with hammers into 
pieces by the men. 

The following is an estimate of the cost of working each furnace load ; and it may 
be mentioned that the fractions of a rupee are shown in decimals in place of in 
" annas " and " pies," as is usually done : 

Smelting Furnace. 

Thirteen maunds ore (9 cwt. 2 Ibs.) are, at twelve maunds per 

rupee ... . 

Breaking up and loading ditto . 
Eleven maunds charcoal, at four maunds per rupee 
One skilled labourer, for tapping furnace . 
Bellows labourers . . . . . 

One twyere pipe 

Breaking up " shoree," or bloom ball . 

Water-carrier ..... 
Wear and tear of bellows 


I -09 




( 82 ) 

Refining or Puddling furnace. 


One skilled labourer ......... '82 

Bellows blowers and hammermen ...... 1 '40 

Water-carrier .......... '03 

Twyere pipe .......... '03 

Six maunds charcoal, at four inaunds per rupee . . . . 1 -50 

Total 3-78 

Grand Total . . 8'62 

As the furnaces cannot be worked during the rainy season, an average of only 
about 200 loads is turned out per annum. The yield of each load being, as already 
stated, 2 1 maunds (200 Ibs.), the total annual out-turn of each furnace is 500 
maunds (17 tons), which, at the rate of Rs. 4 per maund (Rs. 112 per ton), realises 
Rs. 2000. 

The expenditure of the furnace-men, as estimated by themselves, is as follows : 

Working expenses of 200 loads, at Rs. 8'62 per load . . . 1724 

Royalty to the State 200 

Miscellaneous dues , . 37 

Total . . . 1961 

This would only give a clear profit of Rs. 39 per annum ; but the expenditure is 
overstated, and the real profit may be estimated at Rs. 100. Even this profit is very 
small, but it must be taken into account that almost the whole of the wages go to the 
families of the furnace-men, whose wives and children are employed on the works. 
Those families number between sixty and seventy souls per furnace ; and, in addition 
to what they earn by this employment, they derive considerable profit from the land, 
amounting to about 70 acres per furnace, which they cultivate at the rent prevalent 
in the district. 

There seem to have been a few more furnaces in 1875 than when 
Major Cadell wrote. Further general facts will be found at page 183. 

Ulwur iron is said to be malleable and soft as compared with English 
iron, which is more brittle, and, consequently, the former is preferred for 
culinary and wood-cutting purposes. One kind of imported iron, called 
" kheri," is, however, thought better than the country, but is twice the 
cost. English iron is used for fine work, such as door-hinges, carriages, 
&c., as it is much neater than country iron. 

The furnaces are in the southern part of the State, chiefly at Rajgarh, 
Tahla, and Baleta. 

Of copper Major Cadell wrote : 

" The richest copper-mine in the Ulwur State is that of the Darlba Hill, situated in 

Co er 76 26' 20" E. longitude and 27 9' 40" N. latitude ; but copper ore is 

found in many other parts of the branch of the Aravelli Hills, which 

traverse the State from south to north ; and several ancient copper-mines are to be 

found which were worked and abandoned centuries ago." It is, however, found only 

in " pockets," not in continuous veins, so that it can never become greatly profitable. 

( 83 ) 

The mode in which copper is manufactured may shortly be described as follows : 
The manufacture is carried on in thatched sheds, which are generally in a very 
dilapidated state. The ore is chipped out of the solid rock with hammer and chisel ; 
and, having been beaten with hammers into powder, is mixed with double its weight 
of powdered iron slag. This mixture is then made into small cakes with an equal 
quantity of cow-dung ; and, after being roasted in a fire made of grass and cow-dung, 
is placed, like the iron ore, in the smelting-furnace, in alternate layers with charcoal 
When the ore is melted, the furnace cylinder is broken down, and the mass of copper 
which has collected at the bottom, after being allowed to cool, is lifted out. It is 
then taken to another shed, and is placed in an open charcoal fire, where it is melted 
a second time with the aid of the bellows, which is worked by two men standing, and 
which is opened and closed at the proper moment by the man who also attends to 
the fire. It is then poured into a mould in bars, and out of these bars the copper 
currency of the State is coined.* 

The following is an estimate of the cost of turning out one furnace-load : 

30 Ibs. copper ore . . . . . . . , . , - . -31 

120 Ibs. charcoal '38 

Breaking up ore ......... '06 

Breaking ore into cakes with iron slag and cow-dung . . .' '12 
One skilled workman . . . . . . '. '19 

Bellows men . . . , . w . -13 

Refining '06 

Total Rupees . . 1'25 

Those 30 Ibs. of ore yield 5 Ibs. of copper, that is 16 -6 per cent. The average 
annual out-turn of copper during the last twelve years has been only 85 T 7 ^ maunds 
(3 tons 8 cwt.), and it is becoming less year by year, owing to the influx of copper 
from Europe and of British India copper coin. The value of the indigenous copper 
has greatly diminished. The State takes one-third of the copper as royalty. 

Thirty-two families, comprising eighty-eight men, women, and children, derive 
their principal means of subsistence from this industry ; and during the rainy season, 
when the furnaces are not worked, they cultivate twenty-two acres of land. 

A small quantity of sulphate of copper and of sulphate of iron is manu- 
factured out of the water found in the Dariba mine. 

" Lead is found at a place called Jodhawas, near Thana Ghdzi. The 
mines have not been worked for a great number of years, as 
they were not remuuerative. They are now being re-opened; 
and in an analysis made by Colonel Dickens, the ore, which is an argen- 
tiferous galena, yielded eighty per cent, of lead and one per cent, of 

Perhaps the finest white statuary marble obtainable in India is ex- 
cavated at Jhirri, in the south-west of the State, in the 
Partapgarh pargaua of the Thana Ghazf Tahsil. The 
quarries extend at intervals for two miles along the foot of a range of 
hills, and are nowhere deep like the marble quarries of Makrana in 

* Since this was written, British coiu has superseded it, as explained elsewhere. 

( 84 ) 

Marwar. Besides these Makrana quarries, which compete with Jhirri, 
there are quarries at Raiwala, iu Jaipur territory, seven miles from Jhirri, 
and nearer the railway. At present only two families work the Jhirri 
quarries, while at Raiwala there are one hundred families, and at Mak- 
rana (according to a note made there in 1868) one hundred and twenty. 

At Jliirri I was told that the Makrana stone was not so hard and so 
finely crystallised as the Jhirri stone. It has to be raised higher, and that 
adds to its cost, but its comparative softness renders the manufacture of 
images at Makrana much easier than at Jhirri. 

The Raiwala stone is said to be weaker than the Jhirri, iis less pure 
(has more " barbati" in it), and does not ring like the Jhirri stone ; and 
when unusually fine pieces are required by the stone-workers at Dehli, 
they send their orders to Jhirri. However, the demand for stones of 
beauty is not great, and four cartloads of stone are said to be the average 
annual amount sent for transport to Dehli to the nearest railway station 
that of Dosah on the Jaipur and Agra line. 

A six-bullock cart will contain 40 maunds ; a four-bullock cart, 30 maunds ; a 
two-bullock cart, 12 maunds. This shows the traction power of the country bullock, 
and that the amount of stone sent from Jhirri to Dehli is probably at present under 
150 maunds. 

The cost of the Jhirri undressed stone is at the quarries 3 maunds the rupee 
when sold to the State ; 4J maunds the rupee when sold to the public. 

An arch of the ordinary " tirbarah " shape, consisting of two pillars and a toothed 
crosspiece, and 6| ft. by 7 ft., costs about Rs. 20. A liberal price for a " chauki," or 
low seat, 12 in. square, 3 finger-breadths thick, with four feet, standing 1 span high, 
is Rs. 10. An unpolished basin, 8 in. in diameter, costs Rs. 1. Images ordinarily 
from Rs. 5 to Rs. 20, but often much more. 

The customs contractor takes 2 annas on each Jhirri stone-cart going out of the 
State, 1 annas for each going to a point within the State. 

Very large pieces of stone are not now often excavated at Jhirri, but 
formerly noble monolithic pillars have been manufactured there. Those of 
the "Am Kh&ss" hall, in the Ulwur city palace, are from Jhirri ; and when 
Bhangarh, only sixteen miles off, was a prosperous town, and the capital 
of the district, it must, as its remains show, have given much work to 
the Jhirri quarrymen. 

White marble is also found near Dadikar, six miles behind the Ulwur 
Fort, and perhaps in other parts of the State, though probably not in 
uncleft pieces large enough for anything but chunam. 

Black marble is found at Mandla, near Ramgarh, about sixteen miles 
east of Ulwur. Fine slabs, four feet square, can be obtained, 

Black marble. , , . \ ' 

but the quarries as yet have been but little worked. 
A pink marble (guldbi pathar} is excavated at Baldeogarh in the south. 
Fine pieces, large enough for images nearly life size, have 

Pink marble. , , fe , . ..,,. J , 

been extracted ; but there is little demand for the stone, and 
but one family of quarrymen depend upon it. 

( 85 ) 

A very fine white sandstone, suitable for the best ashlar masonry, for 
pillars, rollers, vessels, &c., is obtained. The most important 
quarries lie in the double range of hills which run south- 
west from Ghat on the Rupparel. It is much used for railway and canal 
works. But stone of the same character is also found at Mokanpura in 
Bansiir, and Mandla in Ramgarh. 

Slabs of grey metamorphic sandstone, used for roofing, flooring, &c., are 
quarried at Berla, in the above-mentioned range, at Rajgarh, Chandala in 
Rajgarh, where the slabs are very long ; at Kho Dariba, near Baldeogarh, 
mentioned above ; at Kerwarf, the most important of the slab quarries, 
because near the Khairthal Railway station ; at Todiar, near Ulwur ; at 
Ajabgarh, to the south-west; at Mandawar, to the north. 

Slates are found at Bilaspur, in Ramgarh, but at Mandan, in the 
north-west corner of the State, is the chief source of supply. 


There large slabs of slate are also produced. But there are 
only a few families of workmen. Slates are only in demand for railway 
works, churches, schools, and other European buildings. A cart, con- 
taining 16 maunds or 132 large slates, from Mandan to the railway at 
Bawal, costs Rs. 2, except in the rains, when it is Rs. 3. 

The price of the Jhirri marble has been already detailed ; 
the prices of the stone and stone-work elsewhere is as fol- 
lows : 

Ashlar at Bharkol, &c., in the Ghat range, about 3 maunds the rupee. 
Slabs at Kerwari, &c., 8 maunds the rupee, or Rs. 1 a slab 3 ft. by 9 ft. 
Slates at Mandan, Rs. 5 the 100 slates 1 ft. by 2 ft. At Ulwur they are sold at Rs. 8 

the 100. The stone is cut with difficulty. 
Black marble at Maudla, about 3| maunds the rupee. 
Images of pink marble at Baldeogarh cost from Rs. 10 to Rs. 100 according to size 

and work. 
At Butoli, in Ghat range 

A kundi, or rough saucer, costs ^ anna. 

Udala, or rough milk vessel, 5 annas. 

A kolhu (sugar or oil press), or a gairat (mortar roller), 10 maunds in weight, 
R.s. 4. 

A chdk, or potter's wheel, Rs. 2. 

A ddsa, or threshold-stone, 2 ft. long, Rs. 1. 

A chaukat, or door and window frame, Rs. 1-4. 

Sardal, or slab over doorway, Rs. 1-4. 

Todl, or bracket, 4 or 5 per rupee. 

Tirbdra, consisting of three small arches with pillars, Rs. 12 or Rs. 14. 
The State duty or royalty on stone varies from Rs. 1 to 4 per 100 maunds of 
fine sandstone. Rs. 1 is taken per 100 slates, 4 annas a maund st&te charge* 
on the Baldeogarh pink marble ; about 2 annas a piece on the mill- on "tone, 
stones manufactured at BhAngarh (Thana Gbazf), Bharkol (Ghat range), Choreti (near 
Ulwur). The charge on Jhirri stone has been specified. 

( 86 ) 

Salt is not extracted from wells, as in some of the Blmrtpur salt- 
works, nor from lakes, as in the States to the west, but 

O-il. / / * 

saline earth is collected, and water from wells turned on to 
it, and then drained off into the ordinary pans called " &gars" 

In 1875 there were seventy-seven dgars ; and the monopoly of the 
manufacture for twelve months was sold that year for Rs. 3220. About 
50,000 maunds are, it is said, annually produced, which are sold at 
about Rs. 22 the 100 maunds, without the State custom dues. The 
latter are the same for the local as for the imported salt, though the 
latter is much the best. 

Saltpetre is obtained in the same manner as salt, and the yield is 
Saltpetre. about 400 or 500 maunds. 

From the salts extracted from the earth at Desiila and Agiara, a 
few miles east of the city, a coarse glass is manufactured, 
from which bracelets (ckiiris} and rough bottles are made. 



As a field survey of only the fiscal villages, i.e., of about five-sixths of 
the area of the State, was made, a complete soil and crop statement cannot 
be furnished. Statistics regarding soils, &c., but of fiscal villages only, 
will be found at pages 187, 188. 

They show that fifty-five per cent, of the whole is cultivated. 

Of the cultivated area twenty-three per cent, is irrigated, and five per 
cent, bears two crops in the year. 

The following figures show approximately the relative proportions 
of the areas covered by the crops chiefly grown : Crops and 


Bajra . . '331 of the whole cultivated area. 

Barley . . -119 

Jawar . . -089 

Gram . . -071 

Cotton . . -069 

Indian-corn . . . '023 

Wheat . . -021 

Sarson . . "007 

Miscellaneous . . '276 chiefly pulses. 

In this computation the double-cropped land has been counted twice, 
in order that the crops for one whole year might be taken into account. 

The land under sugar-cane was about 2000 acres, that under 
tobacco about 1200, and the opium only about 450 ; but as the survey was 
made preparatory to assessment, the people had, no doubt, devoted a 
smaller area than usual to these valuable crops. 

The average yield of b&jra land (unirrigated) varies from 1 to 5 maunds 
the rdj bigha (two-fifths of an acre), according to soil. Usually several 
pulses are grown with the bAjra, and make up about a third of the above esti- 
mate, though sometimes, owing to the character of the season, the yield 
of pulse greatly exceeds that of bdjra grown with it. Irrigated barley has 
been estimated at from 4 to 14 maunds the bigha, gram (unirrigated) at 
4 to 12 maunds, cotton (irrigated) at 1 to 5 maunds (including seed). 

( 88 ) 

For more about, crops, see " Rent- rates." 

To prepare land for the kharif crops in unirrigated land, one or two 

ploughings before the rains are advantageous, not only that 

the rain may be more readily absorbed, but often that the 

drift sand, which has strengthening properties, may be caught in the 


For sugar-cane preparations begin in November, when the land is first 
ploughed, an operation which is repeated six or seven times before the 
ground is planted in February. Cotton is sown in March ; all the other 
important kharif crops after the rains begin. Cotton is said to require 
one ploughing after beginning of rains ; bajra and common pulses, two ; 
and Jawar, three. For the Rabi, wheat requires five, barley four ploughings. 
Two men and one yoke of bullocks can plough a Raj bigha (two-fifths of 
an acre) a day, and about thirty bighas a season. When ploughing is paid 
for, the charge is about one rupee a day for the Rabf and something less 
for the kharif. 

The first day of ploughing after the rains begin is a village festival, 
and called the " halsotia." Omens being favourable, the villagers pro- 
ceed to the fields, each householder carrying a new earthen pot, coloured 
with turmeric and full of bajra. Looking to the north, they make an 
obeisance to the earth, and then a selected man ploughs five furrows. 
The ploughman's hands and the bullocks' feet are rubbed with mendi, and 
the former receives a dinner of delicacies. 
Sowing and The see( * required for a Raj bfgha, or a day's ploughing, 

weeding. i s as follows : 

A bajra crop . . .1 seer, or a little more. 

Jawar . . . .3 seers. 

Charf . . . 10 to 20 

Inferior kharif pulses . . 3 ,, 

Wheat and barley . . 20 

Gram . . . . 15 

Wednesday is generally thought the auspicious day to begin sowing. 
Jawar ) bajra, and inferior pulse crops are each weeded but once ; cotton, 
three times ; wheat and barley, once or twice ; chari and gram, not at all. 
Shortly after bajra wcAjawar have been weeded, a plough is usually passed 
between the furrows to loosen the soil. 

One man can weed about a quarter of a Raj bfgha a day. 

One man can reap about five biswas (twentieths) of a raj bfgha of 
wheat or barley, seven biswas of a bfgha of jawar. half a 

Reaping (laoni). ,,-, n i,~ T- n-j LI v. 

bfgha of bajra. Reapers are usually paid partly in cash, 
partly in corn. The cost of reaping a field is generally reckoned a 
twentieth part of its total yield. 

Superintendent Ram Gopal, estimated the cost of cultivating 210 Raj 
bfghas of barley thus 

( 89 ) 

Ploughing . . . . . .16 

Seed ....... 20 

'Implements . . . . . .12 

Weeding . . . . . . .10 

Reaping ....... 10 

Irrigation from well . . . . .64 

Blacksmith and carpenter .... 3 

This is exclusive of rent and revenue. 

Friday is usually considered the best day to begin reaping. 
The terms commonly used are 

Ploughing, jotna. 

Sowing, bona. 

Reaping, laona. 

Winnowing, barsdna. 

Plough, Jial. 

Flattener, mez. 

Instruments for making ridges to keep water from flowing off 

land, mdnjha, datdli. 
Jelli, fork of wood. 
Dranti, sickle. 
Ganddsi, instrument for cutting, kirbi or bajra straw. 

Rotation of crops, called " pher" is to some extent practised on 
irrigated land capable of bearing more than one crop in the , 

year. Thus in one village I found that a common " pher " rotation of 
was cotton, followed in the -next spring by tobacco, to which 
bajra or Indian-corn succeeded in the autumn, and a crop of barley in 
the cold weather completed the two years' rotation. On good double-crop 
land, barley, gram, or wheat in the " raM" (spring) usually follow bdjra, 
and Indian-corn in the " kharif" (autumn). Jawar and cotton are less 
often followed immediately by a rabi crop, as they are gathered in late. 

In the inferior land moth and bajra often follow one another, though 
they are also often grown together. Jawdr, bAjra, and urad are also said 
to be better as alternate crops. 

The deciduous leaves of cotton help to prepare the land for a high- 
class crop, such as tobacco. In one part of the State, where jungle plants 
of little value as fodder are very abundant, they are often cut to be used 
as manure. It is calculated that eight cattle will afford manure sufficient 
for two acres, and one household sufficient for one.* This, however, 
assumes that the lauds gets the benefit of the manure, which is only the 
case where other fuel is abundant ; elsewhere nearly half the manure is, I 
believe, burnt. 

* Elliott's Hoshangabad Settlement Report. 

( 90 ) 

Irrigation by wells, although the commonest form, cannot be extended 
except within rather narrow limits. For to be profitable, 


not only must the water be, speaking generally, within 70 
feet of the surface, of tolerable quality, and with a copious flow, but if 
the soil pierced be sandy, it must be possible to reach a firmer stratum 
below it after water is reached. If the interior masonry of the well rest 
on sand, the latter will be brought up with the water, and the masonry 
before long be undermined, and liable to fall in. It is in such soil very 
difficult to insert a new masonry or wooden cylinder (bachra) within the 
original one (Jeota) as can be done in firmer soil when the kota threatens 
to give way. 

A wooden cylinder usually costs about Rs. 2 per cubit, or Rs. 4 
a yard. When water is but a few feet from the surface, and there is a 
sound bottom within 12 feet, it answers to make the portion of the 
cylinder within the water of wood, and upon it to build above the water 
up to the surface of the ground, a cylinder of unmor tared burnt bricks. 
Such a well, however, will not last above twenty years, and can have 
neither depth nor width enough to water much more than a third of what 
a masonry well of one run (lao) in the same locality will water. 

In sinking the masonry cylinder through sand after water has been 
reached, a dredger (jMm) is used; but each time the dredger is lowered, 
a man has to go down to fill it. He dare not remain down whilst the 
filled dredger is being raised, lest he should be injured by the fall of some 
of its contents. An attempt has been made to introduce the use of Bull's 
patent hand-dredger, a simple and efficient contrivance, which acts with- 
out the presence of a man down the shaft of the well. 

"When, as frequently happens, the nodulous limestone called kankar is 
found a few feet above or under the water, the well is often a great 
success. An iron rod called a ball (the best European description of 
which is occasionally used) is driven sometimes as many as 30 feet into 
the bed of limestone. On its withdrawal, if a water spring has been 
tapped, it rises up the hole and through the loosened kankar into the 
shaft, and thus a stable well is formed often with a supply of water which 
no rapidity of working will reduce, and it is pronounced atut, or inex- 
haustible. If there is no hope of a bdl, or rise, the removal of some 
kankar may produce a good flow, which is called a saut. Most wells, 
however, are not atut, and a few hours of constant drawing necessitates 
cessation for as long a time to allow the water to be renewed. 

Since the commencement of the Ten- Year Settlement in 1862, the 
number of well runs have risen from 12,604 to 16,074 throughout the 
State. When, in 1872, the regular Settlement operations were begun, 
the systematic issue of advances to Zamindars under fixed rules was 
sanctioned by the Council. Nearly Rs. 80,000 was thus advanced, by 
means of which about 300 new wells were constructed, and more than 
100 repaired. 

( 91 ) 

In working wells the Persian wheel is not used in Ulwur, only the 
leathern bucket (charas), simple wheel (chAk). and rope _ 

// \ r ,, v 11- i Well imgation. 

(loo). The wells are worked in an uneconomical manner; 

for as there is no second rope, by means of which the driver of the 

bullocks might release the drawn water from the bucket, as is done 

in Ajmir and elsewhere, an extra man is necessary to discharge the 


Where water is very near the surface, denklis are used. They are 
the " Shadoofs " of the Nile, and consist of a pole working on a pivot, 
with a weight at one end and a suspended bucket at the other. 

The well water may be divided into seven classes. The best is called 
" matwAla." In it the alkalies and acids are in the proportion most 
favourable to vegetation. 

The second is " malmala" a good water, though inferior to " mat- 

The third is " rtikalla" and may be considered middle class. 

The fourth is " mitha" which apparently has too little salt. Whether its 
effects cannot be counteracted by the use of the common white efflorescence 
called " khdr" or by earth containing it, I do not know. Dung has the 
desired effect, but is often not obtainable in sufficient quantities. 

The fifth is " khara" or very salt. It leaves a white deposit, but if 
rains are favourable the crops under a " khara " well are often excellent, 
and might perhaps be classed above " mitha." 

The sixth, " telia" or earth oily water, is very bad both for irrigation 
and for all other purposes. 

The seventh, " bajar telia" both oily and over salt. Wells of this 
class are generally useless, or worth next to nothing. 

Each kind of water, except the " malmala," can be improved by mix- 
ture with some other sort; thus a " mitha" well favourably situated with 
respect to " khara" ones, so that alternate waterings can be given from 
each kind, may raise all to first-class. 

Well laud rent-rates vary from Us. 5 an acre for sandy, ill-watered 
land, such as is met with mostly in the north, to Rs. 22 an acre for the 
rich, well-watered land of the south-west (see Settlement Report in 

li Nahri " is canal-irrigated land. The most valuable is that near the 
city of Ulwur, the water for which is supplied from the lake 

ci-11 i. CanaL 


It waters many gardens in the environs of Ulwur, and much other 
land. The rates paid are astonishing i.e., Rs. 1-8 a water- 
ing per Raj bfgha ('4 of an acre). As some garden laud 
takes twelve waterings per annum, the amount paid for it for water alone 
is Rs. 45 an acre, and if the revenue be added, it mounts up to Rs. 50. 
Six waterings are usually given to wheat, four to barley, two to gram. 

These rates were established before the Settlement began, and it must 

( 92 ) 

be remembered that those who pay them have unlimited manure from the 
dung and rubbish heaps round the city walls. 

The water of the Rupparel, or Biirah nallah, belongs to Bhartpur during 
the rains, and to Ulwur for the rest of the year. The stream is an- 
nually dammed in October at Ghat, north of Lachmaugarh, and carried 
by canal to the villages of Lachmangarh. The rate charged is Rs. 1 a 
settlement bfgha, not half the Silleserh rate. 

The water from the Deoti lake is distributed to a few villages of Raj- 
garh, which lie below it. Only 8 annas a bigha is charged, but the 
villages are rather highly assessed. 

A new canal, which carries water to some land formerly a grass pre- 
serve west of the town of Tijara, pays no separate cess, the land being 
farmed by the Darbar. 

The total canal land is 

Watered from Silleserh canal, about 1200 settlement bighas. 
Deotl 660 

Ghat 1800 

Tijdra 500 

The separate revenues from canals was, for 1874-75 

Silleserh ...... 15,200 

Ghat ...... 1,700 

Deoti ...... 140 

All the land in the State is, according to the declaration of the Darbar, 
theoretically State property, but the Silleserh Canal land has long been 
treated as actually such, and the Superintendent of Canals annually leases 
it out in small plots. 

This is not the case with the Ghat and Deoti Canal land. 

The Superintendent of Canals acts as revenue collector, as well as 
water-rent collector of three villages, the lands of which are irrigated 
from Ghat and Silleserh. 

For remarks on water-rate imposed by Settlement Department, see 
Settlement Report (Appendix). 

" Dahri" is flooded land, and is situated chiefly in the Ramgarh and 

Lachmangarh Tahsils. The best is in Ramgarh, supplied 

from the Chuhar Sidh, and the rent paid for it is as high 

as Rs. 9 an acre, or more occasionally. Much of it is unflooded two years 

out of three. A good flood is to the villagers within its influence the 

most happy event in the year, and it becomes the subject of song and 


" Taldbi" land is that within a dam, which is cultivated when the 
water is drained off. 

The dams will be found specified and briefly described under the par- 
ganas within which they are respectively situated. The principal are 
Tijara, Lachmangarh, Bagherf, Babrfa, Reni, Baleta, and Kho. 

( 93 ) 

" Kdtli " is land in the bed of nallahs which run dry. It is generally 
sandy and not equal to the " dahrf," but unless the stream 

j ii j j.j.1 -J.I.- -i c xi Nallahbeds. 

is very rapid, the sand settles within a mile or two of the 
spot it was carried from. When sand-bearing nallahs overflow and de- 
posit sand, the land is at first much injured, but when grass begins to 
grow, if cattle are pastured upon it, it soon becomes good, light, arable 

The Darbar, when villages were not contracted for, but managed 
directly by the Tahsildars, endeavoured to collect the full 

, , . , ., , Rent-rates. 

rental, miuus a percentage of two or three per cent., called 
hak mujrdi, allowed to the heads of villages or Lumbarddrs. 

The rent or revenue rates for each kind of crop have been for genera- 
tions officially determined for every subdivision. They were furnished to 
me by the kanungoes or pargana accountants. 

Sugar-cane, though not produced in large quantities, is grown in 
several parganas, and is worthy of notice as being the most valuable crop 
raised. To the south-west of the State, in Thana Gbazf, the revenue rate 
charged for it per raj bigha (i.e., two-fifths of an acre) was from Rs. 10 
to Rs. 15, elsewhere it is about Rs. 6. 

Irrigated wheat was sometimes charged at Rs. 5 and Rs. 6 the raj 
bfgha, but the average rate was about Rs. 4-4. Unirrigated averaged 
Rs. 2-5 

Good irrigated barley was as high as Rs. 4, but the average was Rs. 
3-4. Unirrigated barley is usually in land artificially flooded be- 
fore the sowing, and called dahri, or in naturally flooded land, like the 
sandy beds of nallahs, sometimes known as kdtli. The first usually pro- 
duces good, and the last very poor crops ; and the revenue rate varied 
from Rs. 1-2 to Rs. 3 a raj bfgha. 

Gram, too, varied from 14 annas in the inferior land of Bansiir in the 
west, to Rs. 2-8 in the south-west parganas. Its average rate is about 
Rs. 1-12 the raj bfgha. Gram is seldom irrigated after sowing. 

Irrigated cotton was setting aside the exceptional parganah of Thana 
Ghazf charged at about Rs. 2-15 on an average. Uuirrigated at Rs. 

Irrigated jawdr averaged Rs. 2-2. Unirrigated at Rs. 1-4 the raj 

Irrigated bdjra averaged Rs. 1-2. Unirrigated, 11 annas. 

The rate for the inferior kharif pulses, such as moth, mung, chola, 
jawdr, were ten or twelve per cent, less than the bajra rates. 

These rates are still more or less prevalent in jagfr villages, and are 
sometimes taken by hard jagfrdars when crops are bad in preference to a 
share of the produce (battai), the jagirdar reserving to himself the right 
of returning to battai when he finds it advantageous to do so. 

Where a share is taken by the jagirdar, or proprietor (for there is practi- 
cally little difference between them), it is either a half, two-fifths, a third, 

or a fourth plus a cess, but a third is sometimes regarded as a favourable 
rate, and a fourth always is. These, too, were the shares which the Dar- 
bar, when it took a share of the crop, claimed and collected. 

Jagirdars have a tendency in Native States to become virtual proprie- 
tors, especially where their original settlement was in part due to their 
own swords, or where they have by their own exertions protected their 
estates from danger. Indeed, as the Chief often claims in Native States 
to be the sole proprietor of the land in fiscal villages, he cannot consist- 
ently deny the jagfrdars' proprietary title in his villages, the Darbar's 
rights in which have been transferred to him. The following may be 
regarded as what would .be thought the fair rent and dues of a jagfrdar 
or a sole proprietor of a village, though, probably, more than the latter 
would ever be able to realise, unless also possessed of the prestige which 
a jagfr gives : 

One-third of the gross produce. 

One seer additional per maund on all the produce. 

A day's work from every plough in the village. 

A load of green corn from every well run. 

Rs. 2 on each marriage (and probably a dinner for his retainers). 

The grass and wild produce of uncultivated land. 

Rs. 1-4 an acre on fallow land. 

Jagirdars often exercise the option of realising rent in money according 
to crop rate or in kind. They each season select the mode which pro- 
mises to be most profitable. This, however, is regarded as oppressive by 
cultivators, and I have known proprietors, who found it necessary to con- 
ciliate their tenants at will (j)Ahis\ give them each season the choice 
("J^") of paying their rent in money according to the fixed rate or in 
kind ; and, in the latter case, one-third of the crop (tisra b&ntho) was 

The rent-rates, on which the assessment of the Settlement beginning 
in 1876 is based, are shown in the Settlement Report (see Appendix). 
The tenures of land prevailing in the State are not, I think, peculiar. 
They are locally known under two names, " batti hui" or 


divided, and " gol" or undivided. The first term is applied 
to villages, the lands of which have been apportioned according to here- 
ditary right, and is the " Pattidari " of the North- Western Provinces. A 
glance at the village field-map will usually show whether a village is 
" batti kM," for as each proprietor gets his share of good and his share 
of bad land (achhi hi achchi our buri ki buri}, the well and rich land will, 
unless it is extensive, be minutely divided, and the unirrigated and in- 
ferior, if plentiful, as it usually is comparatively, will be in long rectan- 
gular fields. In such villages the ll jumma " (or revenue assessed on the 
villages) will be paid in fractions corresponding to the hereditary share. 
Thus if a man at the division of the lands received a tenth of them, he 
becomes thenceforth responsible for a tenth, and is spoken of as having 

( 95 ) 

two biswas (i.e., two-twentieths); or sometimes a well rope (lao) symbo- 
lises the smallest share, and so many well ropes the total number of 
shares, or it may be a plough is the unit, or a bullock, or a waist-cloth 
(Idngri), or a bush scythe (ddnkri), or a turban (pdgri), or a yoke 

The "gol" is of two kinds. In the first, occupation has grown into 
virtual proprietorship ; although the land held by each member of the 
community may not at all correspond with his share according to the 
genealogical tree. In this case, each holder is responsible for his share of 
ihejamma whether he cultivates his fields or not, and the distribution of 
the jamma is usually by a bi'gha rate corresponding with the capacity of 
the land. This tenure is sometimes known as " khali ckdli" that is, 
land paying jumma, whether "fallow or tilled." This the Superinten- 
dents call bhaiachdra. 

In the other " gol" tenure, the village land is held in common, and 
let to the cultivators. Rent is paid to the brotherhood by the cultivators 
whether the latter be proprietors or not, and only land actually culti- 
vated is paid for. Jura mdre or " yoke (of oxen) trod," is the term 
applied to land held on this tenure, and it marks the principle upon 
which payment is exacted. The "pala" or fodder of uncultivated land 
even that lying uncultivated for half the year only and any other extra 
source of income, is this property of the community, and is divided ac- 
cording to hereditary shares based on the genealogical tree, as is also any 
profit or loss which may accrue. It is, in fact, a " zamindarf " tenure. 

A combination of these tenures is very common. The well laud will 
be " batti hiii," and the unirrigated " gol " (" imperfect Pattidari! "). 
Or all will be " gol," but the well will be " khali chalf," and the un- 
irrigated "jura mare." 

In deciding claims to land, the Settlement Department was directed 
to treat possession for a given period as conferring an abso- 

lute title. Instead of fixing that period at twelve years of claims to 
arbitrarily, it was deemed better to select a date more dis- 
tinctly marked, and this was found in the commencement of Captain 
Impey's first Settlement ; that is, thirteen years before the expiry of the 
last. The test of proprietary possession was usually the actual or con- 
structive entry of name in the " pattas," or leases, of the two Settlements 
of Captain Impey, and the receipt of hak mujrai (or a two per cent, allow- 
ance on the revenue made to proprietors, or their representatives, the 
lumbardars). Sometimes the receipt of " dhol danka" or a payment at 
marriages in the village, was to a certain extent evidence of proprietor- 
ship. Now and then a person might prove that he had been actually in 
possession, though neither his nor his representative's name was in the 
aforesaid " pattas." 

If in an undivided village a man who had less than his hereditary 
share sued for a partition of the lands in accordance with the village 

( 90 ) 

genealogical tree, he received, if possible, the deficiency from the 
common land not cultivated by proprietors. The possession of pro- 
prietors was not disturbed, unless on special grounds it was justifiable. 

A great many absentees about 2000 as near as I could make out 
were allowed to re-occupy their lauds without opposition during Captain 
Impey's Settlements ; and within the last five years several hundreds have 
returned and quietly resumed their possessions without reference to a 

Occupancy The question of occupancy rights had to be dealt with by 

the Settlement Department. 

Proprietors strenuously opposed the recognition of the occupancy 
rights of non-proprietors ; and as, up to Captain Impey's Settlements, no 
proprietors had wished to oust cultivators, but, on the contrary, usually 
offered them advantages and coaxed them to come and stay, it was diffi- 
cult to discover whether any right of ouster was reserved in case the 
proprietor should claim to assert it. 

Cultivators in Ulwur have usually a better position than in British 
territory ; for, having been pressed to settle in a village, they have often 
been allowed a share in its management, and sometimes permitted to act aa 
lumbarddrs, or to become actual proprietors. Those who resided in the 
village for other purposes than for cultivating land, such as baniyas, 
weavers, &c., had often plots of land assigned to them, whether they 
wished for them or not, the revenue on which they had to pay. This 
apportioning was called " chakbandhi." and the possession of a plot or 
chak was formerly thought such a burden that a trade tax (lag), or house 
tax (jkompri baach}, was sometimes preferred and paid instead. Now the 
plots are valued by their possessors, who claim occupancy rights. 

After much inquiry and discussion, it was held that if a cultivator 
had paid revenue only and no rent (i.e.) if he had paid as proprietors pay 
for the same kind of land) from before the first settlement of Captain 
Impey, and had always held the same land and without a lease (patta), 
he had occupancy right. If he held by patta, or if his rent had been 
raised at the pleasure of the proprietors, or if he paid more than the 
latter, or if the latter had changed his holding at pleasure, it was held 
generally that he had no occupancy rights. If, however, he had been a 
proprietor, or if he was an ex-jagirdar or muafidar, or possibly for some 
other special reason, occupancy rights were conceded. Every cultivator, 
not an occupancy tenant, who had held land in the village for two genera- 
tions, or from a period before the first Settlement of Captain Impey, was 
held to be entitled to sufficient land to maintain himself, though to no 
more, and, of course, not to more than he was actually holding when the 
record of rights was framed. The first class of occupancy tenants were 
not to be charged more rent than was sufficient to cover their share of 
village expenses ; the others, of course, were not entitled to hold at 
favourable rates. 

( 97 ) 

The cattle of Ulwur are in no wise remarkable. The fine animals of 
every kind are imported, and not bred. A good many cattle, 

, , TT, . Cattle, carts. 

however, are exported from Ulwur territory. 

A plough and yoke of bullocks can prepare from 20 to 25 Settlement 
bighas for the rain-sowings. From 2 to 3 bighas of grass Maintenance 
land must ordinarily be reserved to feed these two bullocks of cattle - 
during the rains. The weeding of the crops supplements this grazing 
ground, and sometimes the weeding alone is accounted sufficient, but in 
that case 30 seers a day of tura (barley or moth straw and chaff) is necessary 
for the first month of the rains. A bigha or more is assigned to raise 6 
maunds of gawdr (a coarse vetch) for the two bullocks, which must have, 
at least, a seer a day each during the ploughing, and, if possible, during 
the cold weather. The yield per bigha of bdjra and pulse straw and chaff 
should be from 20 to 24 maunds, and 1 or 1^ maunds of pdla (ber leaves) 
besides. Before the hot weather the ber bushes should yield 4 or 5 maunds 
more that is, from 25 to 30 maunds of fodder per bigha altogether. The 
grass land, which is unused during the cold weather, likewise should yield 
from 4 to 5 maunds of pdla before the hot weather. The cattle require 
about 15 seers a head of this fodder, the total of which for 20 bighas of 
cultivated and 2 of fallow is, taking a rather low yield, as follows : 

Maunds. Maunds. 

Yield of cultivated . 20 X 25 = 500 

Yield of fallow 2X4= 8 

Total . 508 

Or food for one bullock for 1016 days. That is not quite enough for four 
head of cattle for the dry portion of the year, which is three-fourths of the 
whole. But probably, in general, 20 bighas of average light, unirrigated 
land, plus 2 bighas of fallow, would be sufficient to support a yoke of 
bullocks, a cow, and two young cattle, without trenching upon the grain 
crop of 18 acres, which would be used for human food. 

The cattle diseases complained of are (1) mel, described as the worst, 
it seems to burst or cut the stomach ; (2) bhang or Jeusti, the foot-and- 
mouth disease ; (3) naia rog, of which swelling of the chest is the main 
symptom ; (4) aphra, a disease which comes of eating too much guwdr ; 
(5) pkarsvja, a swelling of the thighs. 

The manual on cattle disease, published by the British Government, 
was circulated in Ulwur, and introduced into the village schools. 

The castration of bullocks, in order to make them more manageable, 
is prohibited in all Hindu States, a restriction much felt by Musalman 

There is not, I think, any peculiarity about the vehicles, except that 
the carts are smaller than those usually seen about Agra and Dehli vil- 
lages. Raths, the bullock carriages of the upper class, are 
well made, and sold at Ulwur by the litij workmen. A 


handsome one, including cloth, costs about Rs. 400 ; without the cloth 
less than half. 

The following shows the difference between wages formerly paid and 
Wages. those paid now : 

A.D. 1858. 

4 an mas 3 pies. 

4 3 
2i ,, y ,, 

A.D. 1876. 
5 annas pies. 




Beldars and ) n i/^-i o n r> 

pi- > 1 ,, to 1 anna C pies. 1 3 to 2 annas 6 pies. 

Lime was sold at Rs. 3 the 100 maunds, now Rs. 6 to Rs. 8. The 
stone from the two best - known quarries in the neighbourhood of the 
city was sold thus: Lai Khan's, 150 rdspas, or donkey - loads (112 
maunds), the rupee, now Rs. 1-12 is paid for that weight. Jarak- 
wara quarry lime was Rs. 1-11-6 the 100 maunds, now Rs. 3 for the 
same quantity. 

Formerly agricultural labourers, called mazdtirs, could be got for from 
Rs. 2 to Rs. 28 a month, now Rs. 3 to Rs. 4 are 'paid. A ghilef, or 
cotton cloth, and a pair of shoes, is often given besides. For day-labourers 
2 annas a day is paid. Chumars get a present of grain from those they 
work for, and are not usually paid monthly wages. Other village servants, 
too, such as the blacksmith (lohar), carpenter (katlri), and washerman 
(dhobi), are paid in kind. 
Price current. The price current is shown bel )w : 

Average for s. 1915 

(A.D. 1858-59). 


. 33 



. 43 


. 13 


. 38 



. 46 


. 38 

Average for ten years, s. 1915-28, 
excluding two famine years. 

27 seers. 

Average for s. 1928 
(A.D. 1871-72). 

19 seers. 

The Raj bfgha is about two-fifths of an acre. The bigha selected for 

Measures and * ne Settlement survey is the Akbarf, and is -625 of an acre 

weights. exactly. Only liquid articles, such as milk, oil, <fec., are sold 

by measurement. Everything else is disposed of by weight. The table 

is as follows : 

8 grains of rice 

8 rattis 
12 in Ash as 
18 mashas 

2 paisas 
25 takkas 
40 seers 

1 rattf. 
1 mash a. 
1 tola. 
1 palsa. 
1 takka. 
1 seer. 
1 maund. 

The seer of the " panchseeri," or 5-seer weight, is 25 takkas. 

( 99 ) 

The Raj seer, it will be seen, is 5 tolas less than the British seer of 
80 tolas. 

It having been found that false weights were very common, the Council 
of Administration now compels all shopkeepers to use weights bearing 
the Raj stamp. 

Cloth Measure. 

3 fingers' breadth = 1 girih. 
15 girihs = 1 gaz. 

Locusts occasionally visit the State, and several other insects are 
spoken of as destructive. In the Kharif crops the " katha" B ij g h t8) floods, 
" kdtira" il babal" are chiefly complained of; in the Rabf and famines, 
crops, "kuki" " chepar" " mahwva" "roll," and " sunclar." The last 
is more especially mischievous in gram. 

I believe floods are always, on the whole, beneficial in Ulwur. They 
may injure the cotton and other rain crops, but the loss is much more 
than repaid by the enhanced value of the wheat, barley, and gram crops 
(especially the latter), which abundant rains produce. 

The famines famous throughout the country, and which form eras 
before and after which events are spoken of as having occurred, are 
those of 

(1.) Sambat 1810 (A.D. 1753-54), called the dasotia. 

(2.) 1840 (A.D. 1783-84) the chalisa. 

(3.) 1860 (A.D. 1803-4) the sdtha. 

(4.) 1869 (A.D. 1812-13) the unhattara. 

(5.) 1874 (A.D. 1817-18) the chauhattara. 

(6.) 1890 (A.D. 1833-34) the nawra. 

(7.) 1894 (A.D. 1837-38) the chauranwara. 

(8.) 1910 (A.D. 1853-54) the dasma. 

(9.) 1917 (A.D. 1860-61) the athsfra. 
(10.) 1925 (A.D. 1868-69) the pachlsra. 

Of these, the most general were the second, sixth, seventh, ninth, 
tenth. The last famine which, in 1868-69, fell so terribly on West Raj- 
putaua, was not so bad throughout Ulvvur, where the famine of 1860-61 
was in places more felt. In 1868-69 it was only for a day or two that 
the price of grain was as high as a rupee for 8 seers, whereas in 186061 
that, as implied by its name " athsira," was for some time the rate. 
However, in 1868-69 the loss of fodder was more general than during 
the previous famine. 

Several considerable buildings in the State owe their origin to famine 
relief. Amongst these are the Kankwarf Fort, and, I believe, the Bakh- 
tawar Sagar. The public garden was laid out and decorated by M. R. 
Sheodau Singh during the last famine. 

Bharut grass seed is not the resource in times of scarcity that it is in 
Bikanir. Mota grass seed chiefly (at least in some localities), and after 
that sawank and makara, are what the people mostly depend on during 
these visitations. 

100 ) 



IN Ulwur the fiscal year begins on the 1st of September. The calendar 
year is now used, as the intercallary month of the Sambat year occa- 
sioned much inconvenience. 

The following is a statement of the revenue and expenditure from 
September 1, 1874, to September 1, 1875: 


















Current Revenue 















2. Gardens 
3. Canals 
4. Forest Dues 
"Gurhkaptdni"* .... 

5. Tribute from Jagirdars .... 
6. Grass lands 
" Bdgarb&ch" t .... 































9. Abkdrl (spirits excise) .... 
10. Mint 

Fees of criminal courts .... 

12. Salt 


14. Discount, interest, &c. .... 
15. Savings of pay, refunds .... 
16. Nazdl (Darbar buildings andbuilding land] 
17. Miscellaneous (including Post-office) 











Extraordinary cash balance at commence- 
ment of year ... 

Grand total .... 





f Ordnance, Commissariat, and Miscellaneous Repair Department. 

t Farohi is a charge for permission to carry off bundles of grass from runds, and the return from the sale of strayed cattle ; also fines 
inflicted by Forest Department. Bagarbach is a charge for exemption from labour in runds. 








1. Late Chief's private and domestic expen- 
diture up to October 10th (his death) . 
2. Raj expenditure 
( Riding 
Stables < Carriage .... 
(, Breeding stud 




























































A J Rathkhana 
4. Bullock . do. ( G4rlkh4n6 . . 





7. Administrative establishment (including 

8 Police 

f Artillery .... 
Fort Garrisons . . . 
Cavalry . . . . 

. Fatah Paltan 
9. Army . -, ^^ do 

252, f>9! 

Bakhtawar do. . . 
Irregular companies 
" Rissala Nakdi " 
^ Camel guns .... 

10. Imtiazts 
11. Kothi Dasahra (tent, clothing, &c., de- 


( Buildings 
Workshops ... 

12. Public works JfSdh. or dams '. \ 
Canal .... 

L Miscellaneous 

(MistriKhana . 
13. "Workshops < Chapar bandi . . . 
'. Garhkaptani . . . 

14. Jail 









16. Charitable, religious, and other endow- 
ments, Bengal Famine Fund . 
17. Parganah expenses 
Lambardar 3 per cent, on land revenue 
Kanuugo haks 
Patwarris do 




19. Settlement establishment 
20. Mint 

21. Vakils 

22. Gifts, Rewards, &c. 
Gifts on Marriage .... 
,, Deaths . 


23. Stationery 



24. Tukavi, advances for wells 
25. Khawds C/idas, or household slaves 
26. Rass6f, or kitchen establishment . 
27. Main Sigha, or grants to Zaiiana 
28. Shikar Khana, or sporting establishment 

Carry forward .... 

( 102 ) 







Actuals. : 


Brought forward 
29. Tosha Khana, jewel, &c., establishment 
30. Palki Khana 
31. Sillah Khana, armoury .... 
32. Mashalkhana, lighting establishment 
33. Gunijan Khana, singers and dancera 
34. Wrestlers 
35. Advances to officials and connections of 
chief . .... 
36. Miscellaneous . .... 

Total . . 
School fund . .... 
Dispensary do. .... 

Payment of Government loan . 
Liquidation of miscellaneous debts 
and arrears of pay .... 

Cash balance 

Grand total .... 

























42J 500 

1,963 480 
49 810 

















The principal heads of revenue and expenditure will be touched on 
here; the minor establishments more directly connected with the palace 
are noticed under " Darbar." 
Land Revenue. Regarding the Land Revenue, see Appendix IY. 

The Customs * contract in 1868-69 was Rs. 120,000. Then grain and 
252 other articles were taxed, internal duties were levied so 
that goods could not be conveyed from one pargana to 
another without paying toll, and one toll did not clear another, so that 
the same goods might have to pay several times. 

In 1869-70, when grain dues were temporarily abolished, but the 
same system prevailed, the sum contracted for was Rs. 90,500. 

In 1870-71 reforms were begun, and a check on collections by means 
of passes and counterfoils was instituted. After sufficient information on 
which to base action had been obtained, a change of system was com- 

Now the articles taxed have been reduced from 253 to 29. Grain 
pays only a registration fee of a pie a maund ; internal duties have 
been entirely abolished ; the tariff on the articles still taxed has been re- 
duced, except in the case of salt (which has been raised from 2^ annas to 
6 annas), and yet the contract for 1873-74 was sold for Rs. 135,000. 
The railway seems likely, on the whole, to benefit the customs revenue in 
spite of the loss of transit dues which it entails. 

For details of customs, see " Trade." 

The "spirit drunk is distilled from "gur" (molasses) water, and the 

* Customs were abolished in 1877, see agreement, page 192. 

( 103 ) 

Dark of the kikar (Acacia arabica). That sold is of two qualities, 
the strongest is sold at 8 annas a bottle, the weaker at 5 



Thakurs have private stills and brands. The licence to sell liquor is 
disposed of to a single contractor, who pays about Rs. 7000 for it, and 
appoints sub-contractors. There has not been any check on the number 
of shops open. 

Canals have been dwelt on under " Irrigation." The entry in the 
Revenue Account has reference only to the Siliserh and the 

_,, i Canals. 

Ghat canals. 

Salt yields a very small revenue ; it is touched on under " Mines and 
Minerals." Salt. 

The same remark applies to iron furnaces. iron furnaces. 

There are sixty-five gardens belonging to the Raj. Two are inside 
the city walls, twenty-seven in the environs, one in the 
Kishengarh pargana, two in the Tijara, two in the Bansiir, 
one in the Govindgarh, three in the Lachmangarh, six in the Thana 
Ghazf, twenty in the Rajgarh. 

In the aggregate they cover 1150 acres ; and in 1874-75 the revenue 
from them, exclusive of the value of produce consumed by the Raj, was 
Rs. 14,500, and the cost Rs. 20,900. 

A few years ago they yielded less than a third of this sum. 

The Bannf Bilas, and many of the gardens around Ulwur, are well 
watered from the SfHserh Canal ; and, owing to this abundance of water, 
combined with the richness of the soil, are very productive. The Bannf 
Bilas is one of the finest gardens in North India ; it covers 150 acres, and 
is remarkable for its fine drives, ornamental trees, and for its profusion 
of fruits, flowers, and vegetables. The peaches are the best I have ever 
seen, and the Bombay and Malwah mangoes very fine and good. All the 
ordinary fruits are produced in the Ulwur gardens, and amongst them 
strawberries sometimes in great plenty. 

Of vegetables, the finest are the cucurbitaceous kinds, known as 
"arm," " koela" and " ghiya." The leguminous, " sim " and " tordi." 
" Banyans " and " karelas " are also remarkably good. 

The tracts of land, usually wood and grass reserves, which are regarded 
as the special property of the Darbar, are fifty-five in w 
number, and 367,758 Wghas in extent. They are termed an<i game 
runds, and those in which wood alone is preserved, bannfa. 
Some, especially in Thana Ghazf Tahsfl, are let to the neighbouring 
villages, as the Darbar has no use for the large quantity of grass pro- 
duced in that part of the state. 

The number of runds and bannis are as follows : 

In the Ulwur Tahsil there are 17, having a total Settlc biRahs 

area of 151,668 

In Ramgarh . . x5, . . area 1,853 

( 104 ) 

Runds and Bannfs. Settle, bfglias. 

In Lachmaugarh 3, area 2,048 

Tijara 4, . . . 12,858 

Bahror ....!,... 2,472 

Katumbar 2, . . . 1,567 

,, Kishengarh . . . 2, . . . 886 

Bansiir 2, . . . 37,765 

,, Govindgarh . . . 1, . ,, 125 

Thana Ghazf . . . 12, . . 82,510 

Rajgarh 9, . . . 74,008 

Six of these runds are kept exclusively for the Raj cattle. 

Details regarding each wood and grass reserve will be found recorded 
in the Revenue Office. A boundary map of each was made by the Settle- 
ment Survey. 

Most of these reserves were established by M. R. Partap Singh. 
They comprise a large portion of the hilly tract west and south-west of 
the city; but, as appears from the above, reserves exist in all parts of 
the State. The person at the head of this department is Darogha Sheo 
Bakhsh. Under him are a number of writers (mutasaddis) , keepers 
(rtindias), and rangers (phirwAls) maintained for the protection and 
management of the reserves. 

Plough wood is usually given gratis, but old ploughs have to be given 
Disposal of back ; and small cesses and a certain amount of grain and 
wood. fodder is collected from the neighbouring villages of each 

reserve by the forest officials. 

Wood for other agricultural purposes is supplied at the following prices : 

Es. An. 

Clod-leveller (Mez) of " babul " . . . . .14 

of " khejra" . . . . .08 

Well-wheel stand (Ddhna kacha) . . . . .50 

(Ddhna pakka) . . . . .28 

Mahchak, on which the well-masonry stands (Dhak the best wood for this) 5 

Where wood suitable for charcoal abounds Rs. 2 an axe is levied from the cutters. 

Uncut fuel has been charged to the railway at from Rs. 2-8 to Rs. 10 the 100 

For fencing, 5 seers of grain per bigha has been taken, and the same, plus a bundle 
of fodder for a " donchi," or erection for crop-watchers. The village chamars supply 
shoes to the rangers, for which they receive the bark of trees in exchange. Rangers, 
&c., also get food from villagers on occasions of marriages, and they have other 
advantages, which seem to vary in different places. In some localities, where wood 
is plentiful, and where no considerable town is near, cesses and prices are lower than 
those mentioned, and people are allowed to cut wood for burning lime and for other 
purposes. Villagers are usually not prohibited from picking up dead wood, but some- 
times it is sold at about 6 maunds the rupee. Raj servants are allowed wood and 
dhdk leaves from the reserves for marriages, &c., but special permission has in each 
case to be obtained. 

( 105 ) 

The kinds of trees, plants, and grasses have been detailed under 
" Forests" and "Vegetable Products," and something about their uses 
and comparative value added. 

The arrangements for cutting and storing the grass vary. In some 
places the zamindars employed to cut it receive half. In some the cutting 
is apportioned off to certain neighbouring villages, who receive on an 
average Us. 1 for 25 maunds on completing the operation. Occasionally 
the cutting is performed through a contractor. 

Heavy losses are frequently sustained from the jungle fires in the hills, 
which spread to ricks in their neighbourhood. 

For Nazul, see "Administration," page 115. 

The Ulwur stables were well maintained by the late Chief. Of the 
riding-horses, 16 are Arabs, 3 Walers. The best of the 
remainder are out of country mares by Kattiawar and Arab 
sires. The cost, owing partly to the large allowance of sugar, ghee, and 
milk to the foals and best horses, and partly to general mismanagement, 
was in the time of the late Chief about twice what it is at present. 

The riding-horses are in three classes. The first includes those 
reserved for the use of the Chief, called Kkdssa, and those kept for his 
friends ; the second and third contains all the inferior horses. Most of 
them are kept in stables near the palace in the city, but fine spacious 
stables have been built for them near the breeding paddock. Their 
present number is 99 Khdssa and first class, 20 second class, 160 third 

The carriage-horses are 68 in number : 14 are Walers, the rest country. 
They are kept in the city. A large coachhouse in the city contains 48 
carriages of various kinds, all of the European style ; some are very hand- 
some. Amongst them is an old one presented to Maharao Rajd Bakhta- 
war Singh by Lord Lake. 

The breeding stud consists of 8 stallions and 75 mares. 

Just now (1876) the foals number 107. 

The stallions are 1 fine thoroughbred English horse, 1 Arab, 5 Kat- 
tiawar, 1 Waler. 

The mares are 4 Arab, 3 Waler, 6 Kattidwar, 62 Ulwur bred. 

There are 3 fine paddocks recently established for the mares and foals. 
The stallions stand in a walled-off portion of one. The foals now run 
wild, and so develop their hoofs and muscles, instead of being tied up, as 
was formerly the practice. 

There are 27 elephants at present maintained. All are said to be of 
the Silthet breed. This is held to be rather a small number 
for such a State as Ulwur.* 

* The amount of food allowed, according 
Wheat flour 7 seers to 20 seers. 
Dal . . 2 5 
Rice . .2 5 
Salt . . ilb. to fib. 

to size, is 
Gur . 
Ghee . 
Grass . 

. seer to 1 seer. 
. 2 maunds to 3$ maunds. 

Cows and 


( 106 ) 
There are the following cattle at present : 

Rath Kana 

f Kath 
I Cart 

( 1st class, 203) 
Cows < 2d 

Young buffaloes . 

34V . 
171 j . 


There are about 1448 camels. 

In the breeding stud 
She camels . 

Sdnds, or males for covering 
Young . . . 

For working 

1. Khdssa (Maharaja's private) 

2. Sawdfi or riding . 

274, of which 49 are imported 

of the Nagorf breed. 





14, of which there are Nagori, 
2 ; Gujaratf, 6 ; Agra 
bred, 1 ; country, 5. 







About 50 camels are always kept ready for use, the rest roam the 
hills during the rains, and afterwards they are taken from village to vil- 
lage to graze, staying only one day at each place. Over each 20 there 
is a keeper, called a " Gwdl ; " and a " Thokd&r " over each 200. 

Formerly there was no separate body of police. The Thanadars were 
very ill-paid, and the men under them were borrowed 
irregularly from the forts. Thanadars now receive from 
Us. 30 to Us. 40, and the best men obtainable from the forts have been 
formed into a separate service on higher pay than they got as garrison 
sepoys. An efficient Superintendent of Police has been appointed, who, 
besides supervising the regular police, looks after the predatory classes, 
who are Mfnas chiefly ; and the Chaukfdars, who are also often Minas. 
His pay is Us. 100 a month. The pay and perquisites of the village Chau- 
kfdars, formerly eked out by a precarious black-mail on merchandise called 
" Dhultirhi" are now on a secure basis, a stipend derived from local cesses 
having taken the place of the black-mail. 

For statistics of crime and the work of the police, see " Criminal 

The following are specimens of names gb 
Chdnd mfirat . . Moon-like. 
Modem mtirat . Cupid-like. 
Dtirga Bakih . Gift of Durga. 

en to elephants : 
Man pidri 
Jumna Laha . 
Kishen Takht 

. Pet. 
. Jumna ripple. 
. Seat of Khrishn. 

( 107 ) 
The army is composed of artillery, cavalry, and infantry of the follow- 

ing classes : 

1860 Ulmir Musalinans 
292 Foreign 

2342 Ulwur Rdjputs 
546 Foreign 

1580 Other Ulwur Hindus 
172 Foreign 
3 Eurasians 

Pathans . 

Shekhs . 

Saiyads . 

Moghals . 




Nanikas . 


Rdhtor . 





Others . 

Brahmins . 















The detail of corps and companies are as follows : 

ARTILLERY (chiefly Musalmans). Horse 28 men, with 2 guns equipped. Pay 

Rs. 6, per mensem. 

Camel 60 men, with 2 guns equipped. Pay Rs. 5. 
Foot 181 men, with 61 one guns equipped. Pay Rs. 6. 
Foot (Zarnburaks or camel-guns) 100 men (chiefly Brahmins and 
Musalmans), with 70 guns. Pay Rs. 4 chiefly. Some on Rs. 5. 
CAVALRY. 18 Rajput Rissdlas. 1695 men (chiefly Rajputs, of which Nariikas 
form about one-third), with 1295 horses. (Horses supplied by 
Raj.) Pay Rs. 4-10 to Rs. 5-6. 
1 Nakdi Rissdla 101 men (about half Rdjputs) and horses. Pay Rs. 15. 

(Furnish and keep own horses.) 
INFANTRY. Fatah Paltan, 605 men one-fourth Rajptit, one-fourth 

Musulman (Shekh, Pathan), one-third Brahmins. Pay of 
Khds Paltan, 350 men nearly all Musalman, of which rank and 

nearly half are Khdnzddas. file from Rs. 

Bakhtdwar Paltan, 356 men chiefly Musalman, of which 5 to Rs. 5-8. 

Shekhs are most numerous. 

34 fort garrisons, 3065 men of which 245 are artillerymen, about 
1300 are Rajputs, of which Nanikas and Chauhdns are the 
most numerous ; 500 Brahmins and 700 Musalmans, of which 
Shekhs and Pathans are the most numerous, with 218 guns 
in fair order. Pay from Rs. 2 to Rs. 3 chiefly, but some be- 
tween Rs. 3 and Rs. 7. 

( 108 ) 

Bahadar Singh ka bera or levy . . 83 men. 

Sultan . 62 

Barchi bardAr (spearmen) . . 47 

Naiks (half Shikari, half Sepoy) . 35 

Khas bardar (M. R's. orderlies) . . 56 

Minks over Tosha Khdnd . . . 13 

Sepoys holding land, called bardars, 30 (these furnish 142 men, they 
are in fact a kind of small jagirdars, bound to bring footmen 
instead of horse for the Raj service. They are employed in 
tahsils and forts). 

Ex-bardars, now drawing pay at Rs. 4 a month, also employed in 

tahsils and forts, 41 men. 
Jagir horse, which serve for six months in the year, 601 men. 

The men composing this force consider that they have an hereditary 
right to service and pay ; and the arms, discipline, training, and organi- 
zation of the troops is for the most part probably much the same as it 
was two generations ago. 

The guns are for the most part very old. Four light ones were 
given to the Darbar by the British Government after the mutinies, but 
most of the more recent ones are of brass, cast at Ulwur. None of the 
guns are larger than six-pounders, and most much smaller. 

The artillery can work their guns sufficiently well for the purposes of 
the Darbdr. 

A few of the cavalry are drilled, as also are the regular regiments. 
The rest are not. With the exception of about 400 percussion-lock 
muzzle-loading muskets purchased by the State from the British Govern- 
ment, the arms are all of an antiquated description. 

The Imtiyazis are a favoured class, getting from Rs. 30 to Rs. 90. 
, . They are persons who have been so provided for usually on 

Pensioners, * 

imtiy&zis, account of family claims. They are supposed to have a 
military standing, and their services are available for em- 
ployment in the army or elsewhere, but usually they have no duties. 
There are a few persons included under " Administrative Establishment," 
called " Rozinadars," who have no fixed duties ; and fewer still who are 
called " pensioners," and receive a small allowance. 

The Kothi Dasahra is the department which supplies all kinds of 
clothes, cloth tents, carpets, and is under a special superin- 
tendent, whose pay varies from Rs. 50 to Rs. 100 a mouth. 
The public works department is under a scientific engineer, who receives 
Rs. 300 a month. It has done much during the last few years. 

Public works. m . . J 

The artisans (kdngars) under it work in the precious metals, 
copper, iron, brass, ivory, and wood. 

The silver and gold-smiths are nine in number, and receive from 
Rs. 4-8 to Rs. 30-8. They engrave and work skilfully in gold and silver, 

( 109 ) 

repair watches, make mathematical instruments, and very delicate ivory 

The coppersmiths, who can also work in iron, are ten ; and their pay 
varies from Rs. 4 to Rs. 10-8. They make guns, pipes, copper nails, 
and tubes, &c. 

The iron-workers are eight, on from Rs. 3 to Rs. 10 a month. They 
make iron hinges, locks, chains, screws, nails, &c. 

The braziers are ten in number, and their pay is from Rs. 4 to 
Rs. 10-8. They are employed in making brass hinges, locks, screws, &c. 

The ivory-workers are only two. They receive Rs. 5 and Rs. 8-8. 
They make ivory images, but rather rough ones, and their work in ivory 
is not equal to that of some of the silver-smiths. 

The carpenters are fifty-five. They can, besides ordinary carpenters' 
work, make chairs and models in wood. Their pay is from Rs. 43 to 
Rs. 10-8. 

The hereditary State architects (ustas) number six. Their fathers were 
the craftsmen who built the palaces, and the beautiful cenotaph of Ma- 
harao Raja Bakhtawar Singh. None have received a scientific education ; 
but they can draw neatly to scale, and make out estimates. Their pay 
varies from Rs. 7 to Rs. 30 a month, or its equivalent. 

The workshops are not under one head. The mistri, khdna is the 
department for repairing arms, and occasionally it makes 

i. i i i mu c. i i f Workshops 

matchlocks. The workmen are five in number, and get from 
Rs. 10 to Rs.20. 

The ckappar bandhi and garh kaptdni are under one head, and separate 
from the mistri khdna. The first is the department for keeping numerous 
outhouses and some buildings belonging to the Darbar thatched securely. 
The fixed establishment receives about Rs. 40 in pay. 

The garh kaptdni (fort captain) is the department for protecting the 
forests, for bringing in supplies of wood, and for taking care of and dis- 
tributing the stores of wood. The head ranger (girddwar) receives about 
Rs. 30 a mouth, and there is an establishment of writers and foresters 
(see " Forests"). 

The jail is under the Agency Surgeon, Dr. Mullen, who has subordinate 
to him an efficient superintendent. The building, erected by 
M. R. Bannf Singh, is like a large " Sarai," a shape which 
apparently has sanitary advantages, for the jail is remarkably healthy. 
There is both intra-mural and extra-mural labour ; the ordinary jail 
manufactures are carried on, and discipline is thoroughly well main- 

For 1874-75 the daily average number of prisoners in the jail 
was 445. 

There is a lunatic asylum attached to the jail, in which twenty-one 
persons were treated during 1874-75. 

The total expenditure for the year, excluding building charge, was, 
omitting fractions, Rs. 22,314. 

( no ) 

The average annual charge to the State per prisoner was Rs. 50-2. 

The average annual earning per prisoner was Rs. 17-6-3. 

The total earnings of the prisoners for the year was Rs. 7739-8. 

The average annual cost for diet per prisoner was Rs. 16-8. 

The average annual cost of clothing and bedding was Rs. 3-5. 

The jail guard consists of the following : Subadar, 1 ; Havildars, 6 ; 
Sepoys, 119; Bhisties, 3; Jamadar, 1 ; Naik Havildars, 5; Writer, 1; 
Khalassu, 1. 

The cost of the guard is Rs. 9140 per annum. 

Each working prisoner receives daily a seer of grain and pulse, varied 
by vegetables. 

On the occasion of the birth of the late Chiefs son in 1869, all the 
prisoners of every kind, 470 in number, were released. 

The custom of releasing prisoners on certain occasions is still prac- 
tised, but discrimination is now exercised in the selection of those to be so 
favoured. There are now (March 10th, 1876), out of the 502 prisoners in 
jail, but 46 untried. Half the sentenced prisoners in the jail in February 
1876, had been convicted of robbery or theft of some kind. Thus 

Robbery and 



Mfuas . . . 




Meos .... 




Rajputs . . . 








Others . . . 




Total . 




Homicide is not frequent, but thefts are at present much more numer- 
ous than in British territory, although there has been a great improve- 
ment on the former state of things. 

The mint, which is situated at Rajgarh, occasionally coins a few 
Mint and native rupees, called " Hali," but the advantage of a single 
coinage. coinage in the State, and that one which is sure not to be 
debased, and which is current outside it, is generally felt ; so that the 
British rupee is now almost exclusively in use. The British copper 
coins are also acknowledged to be infinitely more convenient than the 
heaps of cowries and heavy " takkas," which represented awkward frac- 
tions of an anna,* and the value of which was always fluctuating. So, 

4 cowries 

2 gandas (3 dams) 

4 damris 

2 adhelas 

2 pice 

From 18 to 23 takkas 

1 ganda. 
1 damri. 
1 adhela. 
1 pice. 
1 takka. 
1 rupee. 

( 111 ) 

between September 1st, 1873, and October 1st, 1874, Rs. 30,000 worth of copper 
coin has been purchased from the British Government by the State at a profit 
to the latter of Rs. 25 per cent. The whole of this has been put in circulation. 
The State Treasury is always ready to receive back any portion at par should 
the public have more than it requires. Pies as well as pice are used, but 
Baniyas prefer cowries, and will not take pies at their full value. I believe no 
classes now prefer the old " takka," except the sellers of grass and fuel.* 

There are only two vakils or agents of the Darbar, one with the Governor- 
General's Agent of Rajputana, and the other with the Resident of 
Jaipur. The pay of the vakils is from Rs. 80 to Rs. 150 a 

There are allowances to Brahmins and to temples. The temples so favoured 
are 376 in number, Of these, three, f built by Ranis in the 
Kacherri square, receive Rs. 3000 each. One at Dwarka re- religious en- 
ceives Rs. 3600, the Jagannath temple in the Ulwur bazaar 
receives Rs. 600, and the Govind deoji temple at Rajgarh receives Rs. 2500. 
The rest is distributed in small sums. The total sum spent on temples is about 
Rs. 40,000. Brahmins receive Rs. 28,000, and the halt, lame, blind, and hun- 
gry, about Rs. 7000. Formerly, in almost all the tahsils there was a email 
daily dole for travellers ; and at Lachmangarh the dole was large for the 
benefit of the numerous travellers passing from North, Raj putanawa Mungana 
ka Barah towards Mathura. This ceased in A.D. 1868. 

This is a sum devoted to grants in aid of marriage and funeral expenses 
made to officials. These grants vary from Rs. 5 up to Rs. 3000, 

Gifts, &c. 

or even rnora 

* For present Ulwur currency see agreement, page 193. 
t Bihdrijf, Radha Goviudji, Brij Nandji, all to Sri Khrishu. 



for five 




THE rainfall of the last five years at Ulwur has been as follows : 
From 1st April 1871 to 31st March 1872 . 15'48 inches. 

1872 1873 . 34-68 

1873 1874 . 22-05 

1874 1875 . 23-18 

1875 1876 . 29-20 

There are no continuous statistics of temperature. Speaking generally, it 
may be said that the northern part of the State, where the soil is light and the 
country open, has in the hot months a lower average temperature than the 
hilly portion, with its burning rocks, and the region east and west of it with 
its harder soil. During the rains the higher points of the hills are cool, and 
offer a pleasing change to residents in the plain below. The upper fort, which 
is 1000 feet just above the city of Ulwur, is at that season quite an agreeable 

The State generally is healthy, more particularly the northern portion. 
Diseases. The following is from the official report : 























Guinea "W< 

Diseases o: 

Abscess an 

"Wounds ar 































There are three dispensaries in the State. They are at Ulwur, Tijara, and 
Kajgarh. That at Ulwur comprises a commodious set of buildings arranged 
round trees, and it has a male and female ward for in-patients, and is well 
furnished with all necessary appliances. The average daily number of patients 
treated at the three dispensaries has risen from 183*69 in 1871 to 218-8 in 
1874. There were 23 major and 1584 minor operations performed during the 
year 1874. 

( "3 ) 

There were 23,910 vaccinations in 1874 against 7299 in 1871. Rajputs 
alone are said to be openly opposed to it, and occasionally a real 

... , .. . . , , i Vaccination. 

appreciation of it is manifested. 

In a very few localities, Kanwari for instance, the drinking water is bad ; 
but special local complaints are not often complained of. There are, however, 
both in Lachuiangarh and Bahror, villages where guinea worm is said to be 
exceptionally common. The people attribute it to the dirt of tanks in which 
buffaloes wallow. 



FOR the Government of the State during the minority of the Chief, a council 
of administration was appointed. This council consists of four 
members, who receive from Rs. 300 to Rs. 500 a month. 
The Political Agent is President. It hears appeals from the Appellate and 
Revenue Court, sanctions ordinary expenditure, exercises a general super- 
vision, considers and usually decides all questions of importance which 
arise. The members at present (September 1876) are Pundit Rupnarain, 
who sat in the council when Captain Impey was Political Agent ; Thakur 
Mangal Singh of Garhi ; Thakur Baldeo Singh of Srichandpura ; Rao Gopal 
Singh of Pai. 

The Appellate Court is presided over by an official, who receives Rs. 500 

a month. He hears appeals from the Criminal, Civil, and Nazul 

courts. In criminal cases involving two years' imprisonment, 

and other cases affecting property up to Rs. 1000, his decision is ordinarily 

final. He acts as a Court of Session as regards cases beyond the power of 

the Fanjdar. 

The Revenue Court or " Malsadar," is presided over by a Deputy Collector, 

Revenue w ^ g enera lly superintends everything connected with the 

Court. revenue, more especially the land revenue. He hears suits for 

land-rent, &c., and also suits based on mortgages and claims of money-lenders 

against zamindars for money lent to enable them to pay their revenue. He is 

aided by an assistant deputy collector. The settlement has taken so much 

work out of the hands of the Revenue Court during the last four years that 

statistics of the work it has lately done would be of no value for general 


The Faujdar is the head of the Criminal Court. He can sentence to one 

Criminal year's imprisonment and Rs. 300 fine, or one year more in lieu of 

Court. fi ne There is ordinarily no appeal from his sentences up to six 

months' imprisonment or to Rs. 30 fine. The Faujdar hears appeals from the 

Tahsildars, who have power of imprisonment up to one month and fine up to 

Rs. 20. The following is the criminal statement for 1874-75. 

( 115 ) 

Cases re- 
ported dur- 
ing the 

Cases in 
which con- 
viction was 


died, or dis- 
after trial 

those or- 
dered to 

Class I. Offeuces 

against state, <fec. 






Class II. Serious 

offences against the 






Class III. Serious 

offences against per- 
son and property, or 
against property only 


Class IV. Minor 

offences against per- 
son and property. 






Class V. Minor 

offences against pro- 






Class VL Other 











In 3090 cases property was stolen, aggregating Us. 57,000. 
was recovered, aggregating Us. 10,230. 

In 491 property 


This is the department which has charge of the buildings belonging, to 
the state in and about the city of Ulwur, and at Rajgarh, the 
original seat of the present chiefs of Ulwur. These buildings 
number about 730, of which about 480 are at Ulwur. 160 of these are kept 
in repair at Raj expense, and lately attempts have been made in the Public 
Works Department to introduce a system of check on this expenditure. It 
also takes charge of buildings attached on account of State claims, and col- 
lects the Raj tax on sales of dwelling places, and examines and affirms titles 
to such property before sale is recognised. It likewise registers such sales. 
The Raj buildings elsewhere than at Ulwur and Rajgarh are in the hands of 
the Revenue Court There is a Superintendent of this department against 
whose decisions an appeal lies to the Appellate Court. The income of the 
Department for 1874-5 was 

Rent of buildings 


Registration and titles fees in Ulwur and Rajgarh 



Civil Court. 

( 116 ) 

The officer who presides over the Civil Court has power to hear all civil 
cases whatever their value may amount to. Appeals can be 
made in cases exceeding Rs. 50. In cases below that amount 
there is usually no appeal. The judicial officer receives Rs. 300 a month. 

The Tahsildars have power to hear cases up to Rs. 100. An appeal lies 
from them to the Civil Court. The following is the statement of civil cases 
for 1873-74 : 

Cases pend- 
ing at close 
of last year. 

Cases insti- 
tuted dur- 
ing year. 

Cases dis- 
posed of 
during year. 

Value of 

Cases pend- 
ing at close 
of year. 

Civil Court . . . 






Tabsilddra' Courts . 






The Treasurer is a wealthy merchant, who appoints his agent, while 
Treasu and accoun tants, both Hindi and Persian, watch the disbursements, 
account. The great check on expenditure is the Budget system, to 
organise which much pains were taken. The expenditure up to date under 
each budget heading is daily added up, so extravagance or erroneous esti- 
mates may be readily ascertained. 




THE Ulwur Chief is of the Naruka branch of the Kachwaha tribe of Rajputs, 
the acknowledged head of which is the Maharaja of Jaipur. 

The circumstances under which, five generations back, Partap Singh con- 
verted his two and a half villages into the Ulwur State have been detailed in 
the historical sketch. 

Partap Singh had the honour of receiving the "Mahi Maratib, or fish 
insignia, from the Emperor of Dehli. The salute to the Chief allowed by the 
British Government is fifteen guns. No tribute has been taken. No Ulwur 
Chief has yet received the Star of India. 

The distinguished matrimonial alliances made by Ulwur Chiefs have been 
first, Bakhtawar Singh's marriage with the daughter of the Rathor Thakur of 
Kuchawan, in Jodhpur; second, Bauni Singh's, with the daughter of the 
Sisodia Chief of Shahpura ; third, Sheodan Singh's, with the daughter of the 
Jhala Chief of Jhalra Patan. Maharao Raja Mangal Singh has been betrothed 
to the daughter of the Kishengarh Chief. 

Partap Singh married only with unimportant houses. One of his wives and 
a mistress became Sati after his death. One woman perished with Bakhta- 
war Singh's body. There was no Sati at the cremations of Banni Singh and 
Sheodau Singh. 

The present Chief is unmarried. Sheodan Singh left but one widow. Two 
of Banui Singh's survive (January 1876). Villages worth 
Rs. 12,000 a year is thought a handsome provision for a Rani 
of good family or for the principal Rani dowager. The ladies of the Zanana 
used in M. R. Banui Singh's time to be taken pleasure trips to Siliserh and 
the shooting towers, but for many years the outings of the Ranis have been 
confined to visits to their gardens at Ulwur and pilgrimages to the holy bathing 

( "8 ) 

The Dasdhra is the principal festival. The Holi ranks second, then 
Gangor, then Sdwantij. For general descriptions of these festi- 
vals, see Tod's " Rajisthan." 

At the first there is a procession to a garden, where the ceremony of killing 
Rawan is gone through. At the Holi the M. E. goes out into the streets and 
plays with a privileged few at flinging the red powder. At the Gangor the 
images of Shiv and Parbatti are carried to several places in procession, the 
court attending. The " lij " is remarkable for the very pretty fair held on the 
Bakht&war Sagar tank, during which the Maharaja, after accompanying the 
image partly round the tank, seats himself, with his retainers, on the beautiful 
chatri or domed cenotaph overlooking it. 

When the Maharaja goes out in state he is accompanied by the Mdhi 
Mardtib (or insignia received from Dehli), by the images of Sita Ram, by a 
person supporting a gilded umbrella, persons carrying pankhas representing 
the sun and moon, by mace-bearers, morchal or peacock-plume bearers, chonri 
or yak-tail bearers, men carrying curious spears (ballam wdlds), carriers of 
silver tiger-headed clubs (ghota wdlds), runners carrying guns (Mas barddrs), 
and ordinary spearmen (barchi wdlds). 

The palace library contains a collection of Sanscrit works, such as the 

Library Veds, Purans, &c. ; some magnificent Persian and Arabic manu- 
(Pustuk.sdia). gcripts, beautifully illustrated, illuminated, and bound ; and also 
mythological and historical pictures of much interest and beauty. It was 
established and owes its treasures to M. R. Banni Singh. The gem of the 
library is a Gulistan, which in point of ornament is probably unsurpassed by 
any book in Rajputana. 

The armoury, too, is chiefly due to Banni Singh. It contains swords, 

Armoury knives, and shields of great beauty and excellence, and many 
(suiah khdnd). Cur i sities. There are two or three famous artisans, whose 
weapons are known far and wide. They hold villages in lieu of pay, and are 
not natives of Ulwur. 

A number of double and single pole and hill tents are kept 

Camp equipage i -r , i i /. n ^ 

and boating es- up, with shamianas and various kinds of small tents. One 
grand Darbar tent is maintained. On the lake of Silleserh 
several boats are kept. 

illumination*. There are no firework-makers maintained, but good displays 
of native fireworks take place on occasions. 

Menagerie. The menagerie depends upon the taste of the chief. At 

present there are a good many birds, foreign and others, and a few wild 

The tosha khdna is the department for buying and preserving jewels, State 

dresses, dresses of honour, and valuable curiosities of small bulk 

not included under other departments. A diamond valued at a 

lack of rupees and a necklace of " ropes of pearls " are its chief glories. The 

tosha khdjia also manufactures or purchases perfume for the Darbar, and pro- 

cures foreign fruits, such as grapes, &c. The perfume manufactured is chiefly 
jasmine " atar," and a little " atar " of roses. The keora, or screw pine, per- 
fume used comes from Jaipur. 

The hunting establishment, or shikdr Jchdna, contains dogs of various 
kinds, native and European; hunting leopards, lynxes, and Hunting 

hawks establishment. 

Wrestlers are sometimes paid highly in Ulwur. Chiefs often vie with 
one another in having famous athletes (palihvdns) in their 



The gunijan Tchdna comprises the singers and dancers, and Gunfjan kh&na. 
is often maintained at great expense. 

This establishment is presided over by an official, who is styled Diwan, 
who gets a seat in Darbar, and is looked upon as a person ROMOIOT 
of importance. The cooks are Brahmins and Nais. Musal- Kitchen, 
mans, without touching, often direct the preparation of dishes. A taster 
(called " Chakku ") tests dishes before they are served lest they should contain 


The old aristocracy of the tracts which make up the Ulwur state survive only 
in " R&ht," in the north-west of the state, where the Chauhans to some extent 
preserve their ancient prestige ; and in " Narukhand," in the south, where the 
principal old Naruka families flourish. The origin of the Narukas has been 
already detailed (see page 13). It was shown that Lala, eldest son of Naru, 
was the ancestor of the Lalawat Narukas, to which Kallian Singh belonged ; 
and that the heads of the families descended from Kallian Singh are called 
" the five thikanas " of Ulwur, of which the Maharao Raja of Ulwur is the 
chief ; and the united body of Kallian Singh's descendants is called the 
" twelve Kotris," and consists of twenty-five Jagir families. 

As the " twelve Kotrf " have had the honour of assembling to determine which 
of two persons should be Chief of Ulwur, I specify them in detail, 
together with the number of horses which they respectively furnish to 
the service of the state. A horse represents about 200 acres of cul- 
tivated land. It will be seen that some of the estates are very small. 

Bijwdr 10 horses. The Thakur, as being most nearly related to the Maharao 
Raja, has been regarded as the one of highest rank in the state. 

Jamalpur .... 9 horses. ) 

.... r } Collaterals of Biiwar. 

bittana o j 

Pdra . . . . .10 horses. 
Thana . . . . 21 
Lapala .... 1 

Salimpur .... 3 
Bankri .... 5 
Monpur or Srlchandpura . 4 

Collaterals of Pdra. 

( 120 





. 16 


. 11 



. 10 



Bharkol . 




Kachawa . 


Shekhpur . 



Raj pur 



. 15 


Munpur . 

. 14 

Pdi ... 





Nagli Sadh 




Collaterals of Khora. 


Collateral of Palwa. 

Collaterals of Pal. 

Naril had a second son, Dasa by name (page 13), of whom come the Dasawat 
Nanikas, and to whom Naru consigned his claims to the Amer gaddi. 

Dasa raised a rebellion in Amer, and a couplet (quoted at page 46) records his 
activity as a leader ; but he was captured by the Amer Chief Pirthwi Raj and kept 
a prisoner. The legends tell that on the first festival of the rainy season (Sauwan 
tij), he, sitting disconsolate thinking of his home, repeated the lines 

" Bij charhi lagi jari, 

Ae Tij a cher ; 
Dasa ghara umaya, 
Pital sikh na der." 

"The corn seed has rooted and sprouted, 

And pleasant Tij has come ; 
Dasa is home-sick, 

But Pital detains him." 

Pirthwi Raj's wife overheard him, and, full of pity, begged her husband to 
release the captive, which he reluctantly agreed to do. He sent for Dasa, and they 
dined together and became merry in their cups. The Chief asked Dasa to repeat the 
lines which had so touched the Rani, but he recited others 

" Ek to Sawan bitiyo, 

Duja Sawan jae 

Siyale Nahar pakriyo 

Ji chorde to kai." 

" One Sawan has passed 

And another is going 
Since the Jackal confined the Tiger 
Who when free will devour him." 

Whereupon Pirthwi Raj gave him a cup of poison instead of his freedom. Dasa's 
son, Karam Chaud, was murdered at the instigation of Rao Sangaji when the latter 

( 121 ) 

was struggling against him for the "gaddi" of Anier (see " Bfkaufr Gazetteer," 
page 12). The sons, however, of Karam Chaud fought well against the Sisodias 
under the famous Man Singh at the pass of Gogunda * in Mewar, and to some Man 
Singh gave lauds. Of them come the Lawa family and the Uiiiara, Ladaua, and 
other families of Jaipur. 

But two, Abhe Ram and Anand Ram, who were not in the fight, did not get an 
estate, and they set off to Dehli. When halting at Maujpur, a town in the Lach- 
mangarh pargana of Ulwur, the people of the place are said to have invited them to 
stay and protect them against the plundering Meos. As usual in the tradition of 
such settlements, the legends say that the treasure necessary to establish the new 
family was discovered, and the fort of Garhi was built in the hills near. 

The Nariikas are said to have brought the territory stretching for 42 kos under 
their sway, and the Bargnjars, who were in possession were expelled. The tract is 
that still known as " Nariikhand," and the Garhi family, descended from Anand 
Ram, has a high position in Ulwur. Its present representative, Thakur Mangal Singh, 
is a member of the Council of Management. 

Besides the above, there are Naruka families called " Deska," because they 
came on the invitation of Ulwur chiefs from the old Naruka home (des) near 
Jaipur, and settled in Ulwur. 

The Chauhans of the Raht claim connection with Pirthwi 


Raj, the famous Dehli king and hero of Chand's poem. 

One Madan is said to have founded Mandawar in 8.1227 (A.D. 1170). Halajf, fifth 
in descent from Madan had three sons Hansajf, whose grandson Chand became a 
Musalman and received the title of Rao. His representative is still the Rao of 
Mandawar, and receives an allowance of Rs. 1 1 00 cash, and holds a village on per- 
petual settlement (istimrdr). Kanhardeoji, the second, founded the family of Barod. 
His descendants now hold no istimrdr, but 173 bighas of rent-free land and Rs. 173 
annual cash allowances. Raj-deoji the youngest, received the title of Raja for services 
performed. He settled at Nimrana, and when Chand of Mandawar, the head of the 
family, became a Musalman, Manddwar ceased to be regarded as the principal seat, 
but was superseded by Nimrana. 

The determination of the relations between the Ulwur Darbar and the 
Raja of Nimrana gave much trouble to the British Govern- 
ment. The Chief of Ulwur declared Nimrana to be a mere 
jdgirddr of the Ulwur State, while the Raja of Nimrana claimed complete in- 

The final decision arrived at in 1868, and agreed to by both parties, gave the 
Raja of Nimrana civil and criminal jurisdiction within his estate, subject to 
rules the British Government might from time to time promulgate, fixed the 
tribute he was to pay Ulwur at one-eighth of his land revenue, and the Nazcb- 
rdna, on the occasion of succession to the Ulwur chiefship, at Rs. 500. On the 

* For an account of this battle see Elliot's Musalman Historians, vol. v. p. 399. The 
historian Badauni was in the battle, and with other Musalmaus exerted himself to kill 
Rajputs, regardless whether they were friend or foe. 


( 122 ) 

occasions of succession to Nimra'nn, the rules applied to British feudatories were 
agreed to (see G. 0. G-. G., No. 578, of 5th June 18G8). Nfrnra'na was to 
maintain a vakil at Ulwur and with the Governor-General's Agent. Trade 
in Nimrana was to be entirely free, and the Ulwur Chief was to have no 
special customs tariff for goods going to or coming from Nirnrana. Nim- 
rana was to be regarded as a feudatory of Ulwur. The tribute Nimraua was 
to pay was fixed at Rs. 3000 from A.D. 1868 till A.D. 1898. 

The Nimrana estate comprises ten villages, and its annual revenue is about 
Rs. 24,000. 

The following shows the clans and sub-clans which furnish the jagir 
horse. The fractions of horses represent cash payments, or the 
the horse furnished serves but a portion of the usual time : 


No. of 
R4jp6t Clan. Jdgird&rs. 

12 Kotri 26 



Nanika i 
















Joga Kachwaha 







Jadu Bhati 


Ton war 



1 Saiyad, 1 Gosain, 1 Sikh > 
1 Giijar, 1 Kayath ... } 











The right of being received in Darbar by the Chief standing is greatly 
esteemed, and is called " tazim." Some " tazims " are older 


than the State, and some have been conferred by Ulwur Chiefs. 
They are usually heritable. 

Of the Jdgirddrs, seventeen have tdzims, as follows : Twelve Kotri Naru- 
kas, Bijwar, Pulwa, Para, Pai, Khora, Thana, Khera, Siichandpura. Ddsd- 
wat Nawkas, Garhi (20 horses). Eahiors, Sal pur (28 horses), Sukhmeri (11), 
Rasulpur (5). Bargujars Taising (4). Gors, Chamraoli (24). Jddus, Kank- 
wari (9), Mokandpura (3). 

( 123 ) 

Nine Thakurs holding rent-free grants hold tdzims. Of these, the Jaoli 
Thakur, who has three villages, is the chief. Tdzims are also held by the 
Bakshi or Commander of the Forces, the Khanzada Nawab of Shahbad, the 
Rao of Mandawar, and thirteen Brahmins. 

The extinct aristocracy consisted of Klianzadas in Mewat, Shekhawats in 
the " Wai," on the western border ; and the Rajawats of the south-west. Of 
the Khanzadas enough has been said already. 

The Shekhawats are settled in the "Wai" (Bansiir Tahsfl). They are branches 
of the great Kachwaha clan, of so much importance to the north of Jaipur, and they 
are descended from Udi Karan, the same chief of Amer whom the Narukas claim as 
their progenitor. 

Rai Mai, son of Shekhji, is said to have been the father of the Wai families, 

Rai Hal. 

r i i 

Snjajf. Tej Mai. Jag Mai. 

(Descendants settled in (Descendants in Narain- (Descendants in Hamfr- 

" Bealisi," pargana of pur and Garhi Mamur, pur and Hajipur, of 

Bansiir.) parganas of Bansiir.) Bansiir.) 

At Narainpur the ruins of a fine old " Mahal," destroyed by Partap Singh, from 
which, in the good old days, fifty-two palkees (a common number) used, it is said, to 
issue, attest the former importance of the family. Near the ruin is a shrine, an ancient 
" Swami" of which prophesied the rise of the Narainpur family; and beside it the 
remains of a Kejra tree, which in its growth and decay was considered to typify and 
indicate the rise and fall of the Shekhawat family, which now holds little or no land 
in jagir. Their villages, however, have been lightly assessed. 

The Rajawats, descendants of Raja Bhagwant Singh of Amer, formerly 
ruled in the tract which now forms the Thana Ghazi Tahsil ; 
and the ruin of their city and palaces and temples at Bhangarh. 
is a touching spectacle (see Bhangarh). Though now only cultivators in 
many villages, they retain much of their noble bearing, and to some extent their 
social position. The Rajawat cultivators always hold their land at favourable 
rates (see Thana Ghazi). 


Of official families something lias been said in the Historical Sketch. 

Gor Brahmins put on the tillak or frontal mark at the accessions of Ulwtir 
Rajas, and officiate at their marriages. They bear the title of 
Missar. Pdrik Brahmins of Macheri, the old home of the 
Ulwur family, are the parohits or family priests of the Darbar. 

The Vishnu Gosain of Kama is the hereditary Guru or spiritual guide of 
the house, but a Jogi, or devotee of Shiv, and a Shakti, or follower of Devi, 
are also Gurus. 

( 124 ) 

There are no bards regularly maintained, but the descendants of many 
Charan bards hold villages in the state. Several of these were 
conferred by Maharao Rajas Bakhtawar Singh* and Banni Singh. 

The latter, however, gave only one as a reward for clever rhymes. M. R. 

Sheodan Singh confiscated several Others, formerly conferred by Shekhawats 

in Bansur, are held on copper-plate deeds of grant several hundred years old. 

There are two Charan families which have the privilege of receiving the 

elephants ridden by the chief at his marriage. 

The household slaves, or Khdwds Chelas, number about 200. A good 
deal has been said regarding this class in the " Bikanir Gazet- 


teer." Though known generally as " Khawas chelas," the spe- 
cial title of" Khawas," whjch is an honourable distinction enabling the bearer 
to sit in Durbar, is borne by only five. Ramu, the faithful minister and adhe- 
rent of M. R. Bakhtawar and Banni Singh, is the slave most distinguished in 
the history of the State. His family hold a valuable rent-free grant. Kha- 
was Sheo Baksh, Superintendent of stables, woods, &c., is at present the 
chela of most mark. 

When, in 1870, the Council of Administration was established, and a fixed 
sum assigned for the expenses of the palace, the late chief neglected to supply 
maintenance to a number of the household slaves, who applied to the Political 
Agent for the means of support. The Council thought the opportunity a 
good one for permanently reducing the number of slaves in the palace, and so 
far diminishing the servile influence which was the cause of much evil. It 
was consequently determined that the complaining chelas should either leave 
the service of the State, or enter the army as Fort garrison sepoys. This 
attempt to confer freedom upon them was resented as a cruel wrong. They 
had always been accustomed to live in the city of Ulwur, and leave it they 
declared they would not. It was only after a long time, and after every 
effort to change the decision of the Council had failed, that they partially 

* The story told of one of these grants is interesting. During a terrible famine, M. R. 
Bakhtdwar Singh began the construction of the fine tank under the Fort, and the famine- 
stricken from all parts were employed upon it. He noticed that a body of Marwdr vil- 
lagers always set aside a fixed proportion of the flour which they received in lieu of pay ; 
and when questioned they said that the reserved part was for their master the Charan. 
It turned out that they belonged to a village held by a Charan, who, when the famine 
came on, instead of turning his stored grain into gold, gave the whole of it to his ryots. 
When all was gone he left his village at the head of his people in search of food. When 
they reached the Raja's relief work, and were enabled to earn their daily bread, they 
regularly set apart for their master a fraction of it equal to the fraction of the crop 
which he had been in the habit of receiving, and so enabled him and his family to live 
without subjecting themselves to the manual labour they were untrained to, or to the 
disgrace of begging. Bakhtslwar Singh was so pleased with the generosity the Charan had 
displayed and evoked, that he kept him at Ulwur, and eventually he received the village 
of Deorajpura. 

( 125 


The following are the revenue-free holdings of various kinds : 


Pun, or religious grants, 19 of these are held by Cliarans . .. 83 
Jdidad and indm, secular grants without any particular condition 

attached to them ......... 59 

Jdgir, grants on condition of military service . . . .193 

Nakdl, temporary grants to servants in lieu of pay ... 2 

Mdhi, life grants to the dowager Ranis . . . . . 25 

Bdrddri, grants to an inferior class of sepoys called Bardars . . 5 




THE names and position of tracts which, or parts of which, are included in the 
Ulwtir State were specified, and the limits and history of Mewat, the principal 
one, were sketched at the beginning of Part I. ; the establishment of " Naruk- 
hand," where the chief Naruka Thakurs live, was described, page 121, and its 
connection with Mewat, page 12. The chief aristocracy of the " Wai," the 
"Eaht," and the "Rajawat" country are dwelt on at pages 121. 123. 

The " Wai " (valley ?) and " Raht " (savage country?) are, I believe, en- 
tirely situated in Ulwur, but much of the country of the Narukas and Raja- 
wats is situated in Jaipur. Much of Mewat, too, lies beyond the Ulwur State. 
To these should be added a little district in the south-east corner, which is 
part of " Kater." Most of " Kater " is now in Bhartpur, and together with 
parts of " Brij " and the " Dang " forms the territory of that State. 

In the following account of the Tahsils, the old tracts comprised within 
each are specified together with the present subdivisions. 

The fiscal divisions or Tahsils were specified at page 39, and statistical 
details will be found at page 187. 


The Tijara Tahsil adjoins the Gurgaom district of British territory, Kot 
Kasim of Jaipur, and the Ulwur Tahsil of Kishengarh It is 

Tii&ra Tahsil. ., . . a . .-> > <-*- r . i 

situated m the heart of Mewat, is about 257 square miles in 
extent, and has a population of about 52,000. 

The Tahsil is composed of two parganas, having separate accountants or 
kanungoes, and formerly separate tahsildars. The northern one is Tapokra, 
formerly Indor ; the southern, Tijara, 

There are 199 fiscal (klidlsd) villages, and 3 rent-free (mnaffi) total 
202. The fiscal are as follows : 

Caate of Proprietors. Tij&ra. Tapokra. 

Meo 56 65 

Ahir 12 10 

Jdt 1 

Gujar 6 9 

( 127 ) 






Mixed castes 








Uncomplimentary and untranslatable rhymes are current regarding the 
character of the town people. None are reputed wealthy. 

Of the Meos much has been already said, and I will only add that in 
Tijara the clans contend much one with the other.* 

Boundary quarrels are the most frequent. When a nallah is the boundary, 
the centre of the bed, not either bank, is as a rule the border line. 

For statistics regarding the area, &c., see page 191. 

The old revenue rates prevailing in Tijara and Tapokra per Raj bigha (i.e. two-fifths 
of an acre) are shown below. They will not be inserted under every tahsil but only under 
the four most remote from one another, which will serve as specimens of the whole : 





Bajra 1 (irrigated) 

Hup, An. Pies 

Rup. An. Plea 

Cotton (irrigated) 

Kill) AD. Tie* 

Rup. An. Pie* 

1st quality 



1st quality 







1 11 



11 3 





Cotton (unirrigated) 

and > (unirrigated) 

1st quality 



Til ) 




1st quality 









Wheat (irrigated) 




1st quality 



Moth ) 




Mung > (unirrigated) 
Chola ) 

Wheat (uiiirrigated) 



1st quality 



1st quality 













1 8 

1 11 3 

Gwar (unirrigated) 

Gram 1st 

1 8 


1st quality 




1 4 










Carrots 1st 


2 15 6 

Gharri (unirrigated) 



1st quality 

1. 4 


Tobacco 1st 


4 '2 6 










Kasnl 1st 


1 4 

Jawar (irrigated) 

Cummin and Opium 



1st quality 



Mustard 1st 





1 14 



Jawar (unirrigated) 

Tori ( cucumber ) 


1st quality 

1 8 

1 6 

Kachra \ class. ) 

i Kiiri, Mandtia, Barti, Kangni, and China have the same rates as Uajra. 

* The Dangal Ghaserfas, who spring from Rasiua in Gurgaom, and the Landhdwats, 
who come from Baghor of Tijara, are the two chief clans ; the first to the north, the 
second to the south. They did not unite, though they rebelled iu 1857, during the mutiny 

( 128 ) 

The soil of the Tijara Tahsil is for the most part very poor, the best land 
is in the south-west. The chief crops grown are Bajra and inferior pulses 
(masina), and the uncultivated culturable land is of very little value. 

There is little irrigated land in Tijara, less than twelve per cent, of the whole. The 
drainage of the hills to the east supplies water to the principal bandh or darn of the 
tahsll, that under the fort and palace of Balwant Singh. It covers a little more than 
1000 Settlement bighas in ordinary years; and the land within and near the bandh 
is of the best quality. The stream flowing from this bandh can be at pleasure 
stopped by the dam bridge of the Ulwur Tijara road and carried by means of a 
canal, constructed in 1873, into a state rund to the south-west of the town. It is 
probable that this water will hereafter be much farther utilised, for it is capable of 
reaching the land of many villages, and if undiverted reaches the bed of the Lindwa. 
The Tijara bandh stream, when allowed to pass along its natural channel, flows past 
Tijara to the large village of Shahbad, but a bandh west of the town of Tijara turns it 
in ordinary years to the north-west, whence it flows past the village of Mandana, 
where a new bandh has lately been constructed, from which much is expected. At 
Baghor on the Tijara and Firozpur road a dam bridge has been lately made, intended 
not to bring in revenue directly, but to benefit the distressed village of Baghor, and 
to facilitate traffic between Firozpur, Tijara. and Khairthal. Small band/is exist but 
often require repairs or renewal at Bhindiisf, Bilaspur, Deotana, Chaondi, and 

In the Tapokra pargana the bandh at village Nogaon requires attention. It is of 
much importance to the village, and very apt to be broken. Dhiriawas and Amlaki 
are other small bandhs of Tapokra, and at several villages of the Tahsll little bandhs 
might with advantage be made. 

The only item of siwdi (that is, village income not derived from the rent of land) 
which is worth notice is the grazing of the eastern border hills. The amount it 
yielded was taken into consideration at the last assessment of the villages. 

The hills adjoining some villages have been regarded as common to those villages, 
and no boundary lines fixed. One set of such hills are those near Indor Gwalda, &c., 
in Tapokra. Another are those lying over against Riipbas, Damdama, &c., in Tijara. 
The Gol and Baghor hills of the same pargana are a third. 

In the neighbourhood of the hills water is generally a long way 
below the surface. Elsewhere in the Tahsil it is usually from 20 feet 
to 50 feet. 

The climate of Tijara is very healthy, and disease, either of men 
Climate. i i < 

or cattle, is little complained of. 

of the Bengal army. The Landhawats say they come of a Tonwar Rajput who married 
a Musalman Chauhan's daughter. They were at their best about 160 years ago, when 
Shera Landhawat of Baghor held many villages. The Ghaserias were locally powerful 
about 130 years ago. The Gorwdls were said to be the offspring of a Kbanzada of Sareta 
and a slave girl. They have four villages, of which Nimli is the chief. They say they 
formerly had twenty-four, and held the eastern valley from Shadipur southwards, but 
were ousted by the Landhawats. The Dulots are said to be descended from the son of 
a Kachwaha chief of Amber, who was excommunicated for killing a calf in mistake for a 
nilgde, and who then married a daughter of the Indor Khanzada. Bulots and Dadwals 
are other Meo clans of Tijara. 

( 129 ) 

In several of the tahsils the pargana Kanungos have preserved village revenue 
papers called mudzinas (meaning "weighing" or "estimating"). 
These documents, which will be noticed under each tabsll where any 
exist, are of varying dates, of which the earliest is H. 937 (A.D. 1531), and usually 
were compiled under the direction of the imperial officials. There are, however, some 
dates of the Hindi era, and the papers bearing them are of the time of Siwai Jai Singh. 
The Tijara papers are dated 1192 Fasli (A.D. 1787). 

The old area of Tijara, as recorded in the muazinas, is 149,520 bighas, and its 
jumma Rs. 42,007. This measurement is not very different from the result of the 
regular survey, which gives 152,014 as the area. As the Akbari bigha is used in 
each case, this is testimony to the care of the imperial surveyors. 

An old revenue statement of the Suba of Shahjah4nabad (Dehli), within which 
the subdivisions known as sirkar howeli Tijdra, and pargana Indor (Tapokra) were 
situated, gives the revenue of the first as 43,229, of the second 100,337 dams. The 
statement was prepared in the fourteenth year of Muhammad Shah, i.e., A.D. 1733. 

The average revenue of the Tijara pargana for five years of Najaf Khau's rule 
those between A.D. 1790 and A.D. 1794 was Rs. 19,375. For the next five years, 
when the Marhattas were in power, Rs. 25,066. 

For five years beginning from A.D. 1809, after Bakhtawar Singh had acquired the 
parganas, the average was Rs. 40,412. 

The Kanungos papers give the revenue for each of the years included within these 

The changes in the limits of the pargana of Tijara during the last 150 years are 
on record in the Kanungo's office, but there is no occasion to detail them here. 

With the pargana accountant or Kanungo of Tijara, is associated an hereditary 
official called a chaudri, a descendant of the turbulent Khanzada of 
Malikpuri (see below). The family appears to have been an im- 
portant one and worth conciliating, for the present chaudri holds a 
deed of Akbar's time bestowing a grant on his ancestor. It is peculiar to Tijara that 
the " chaudri and kanungo " are usually spoken of together. Indeed, a grant of Aurang- 
zeb's time bestows Rs. 1500 on them in ndnkdr (as maintenance) conjointly. 

It is said that a member of the Kanungo's family now resident at Dehli has a 
portion of the old pargana records. 

The town of Tijara is situated thirty miles north-east of Ulwtir city. Its 
population is 7400. The proprietors are Meos, Ma-11 is, and 
Khanzadas. It has a municipal committee, a dispensary, a school, Tijdraandhis- 
and a large bazaar. Next to agriculture its principal industries t^ ofthedi8 ~ 
are weaving and paper-making. 

As the old capital of Mewat and a place of importance up to recent times 
Tijara is worthy of a somewhat extended notice. Hindu tradition tells that Tijara was 
founded by Tej Pal, son of Susar Majit Raja of Sarehta (see Sarehta), and that its an- 
cient name was Tirgartag. The name of Tej Pal Jadu occurs in Tijara legends con- 
nected with subsequent periods. 

Tahsfldar Makhdum Baksli, to whom I am indebted for much information, says 
that mention of Tijdra is to be found in the Mirdt ul Masaiid, which relates how 
Saiyad Ibrahim, an officer of Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni, in A.H. 420 (A.D. 1030) 
attacked Dhundgarh near Rewari, the Raja of which fled to his kinsman Tej Pal of 


Rewdil The latter, in a night attack, killed Saiyad Ibrahim, but his disciple Saldr 
Masaiid (see p. 70) compelled Tej Pal to fly to Tijdra, where, in a battle, three re- 
latives of Saldr were killed. Their tombs in and near the town of Tijdra are now 
places of pilgrimage. 

The principal shrine of the three is that of Rukn Alims, where a fair is held 
annually, shortly after the Bakra Id festival. 

The rise of the Khdnzddas of Tijdra, and the strong position of Bahadar Ndhar, 
Khanzada and his successors in the adjacent hills has already been treated of. 

About A.H. 856, Tatar Khan was established as governor of Tijdra by the Emperor 
Bahlol Lodi. A large tomb near Rukn Alims is reputed to be his. 

From Firishta it appears that one Alain Khan was governor of Tijara in the 
reign of the Emperor Sikandar Lodi (A.D. 1488-1517), perhaps the Alain Khan Lodi, 
alias Aldwaldin, who is mentioned amongst the emperor's forty-four officers of distinc- 
tion, and who was a brother of the emperor. 

He is thought to be the founder of Aldwalpnr, the remains of which can be 
traced to the east of the town of Tijara. Other works are attributed to him, 
amongst them a ruined palace and mosque on the banks of a nallah, over which he 
built a bridge. He had a steward, Gahla by name, a man so lavish of his master's 
goods, that the proverb " mal Aldwaldm jas Gahla ka" (the goods Alawaldin's, the 
credit Gahla's) is still current in the neighbourhood. Makhdum Baksh surmises 
that a splendid Pathan tomb, the dome of which is a striking object for miles round 
the town, was built to the memory of Alawaldin, as no other Pathan of sufficient rank 
is known to have been resident at Tijara. 

For notice of Tijdra in Bdbar's time, see page 6. 

The Tijdra district in Akbar's time lost some of its importance. It became a 
division of the Dehli Siiba ; and as the Khdnzddas were subdued, the town ceased to 
be the headquarters of a great officer, though a " Hdkim " (ruler) was always resident. 
One of these Hakims, in the reign of Shdhjahdn, built a shrine over the grave of a 
saint named Ghdzf Gadan, which received a grant of land, and is still in repute. 

In Aurangzeb's time, Ikram Khan Khdnzdda, ancestor of the present Chaudri of 
Tijdra, resided at Malikpuri, now a ruin near village Bdghor, and plundered the 
country. He took the Hdkim's nakdra and nisJidn (kettle-drum and standard), and 
in consequence an imperial force marched against him. At village Bdmateri, Ikram 
Khdn, who had surrendered himself, was put to death, and his family, on the approach 
of the force, blew themselves up. Two of his sons, however, Muhammad and Ndr 
Khdn, escaped through the interposition of a Moolla, their tutor. 

In the time of the Emperor Muhammad Shdh, the Jdt leader, Churaman, reached 
Tijdra, plundering the country wherever he went. He completely destroyed Aldwal- 
pur ; and when its fugitive inhabitants returned they took up their residence in Tijdra, 
and Aldwalpur remained a ruin. 

Tijdra changed hands frequently after this, as has been already related. Ismail 
Beg was the last distinguished Musalman who held the town and district. Tahsildar 
Makhdum Baksh discovered at Tijdra a voluminous Persian diary of the events of a 
portion of the unsettled period. It had been kept for many years subsequent to 
H. 1177 (A.D. 1764) by Mian Yumis, whose grandson, a Raj pensioner named Mian 
Sdla Mulla Shdh, kindly permitted it to be examined. It tells how Ismail Beg, when 
pressed by the Mdrhattas, caused holy men to curse his enemies ; and they accord- 
ingly repeated a line of the Kordn, conjoined with an anathema on the Southerners. 

The curse (saifi), however, acted backwards, for a rebellion broke out in Ismail 

( 131 ) 

Beg's army, part of which left him. But he determined again to try cursing, and 
collected a number of fakeers, before whom a cloth with twelve seers of grain on it 
was placed. Taking up a grain at a time, they cursed a Marhatta soldier, and placed 
the cursed grains in a heap apart. It was thus intended to curse the whole Marhatta 
army man by man, but before the operation was complete a gust of wind blew up the 
cloth, mingling the cursed with the uncursed grains, and men felt that it was all up 
with Ismail Beg. He fought a battle, however, at Patun,* in which he was beaten 
and his army scattered after which the Mdrhattas took possession of Tijdra. Sindiah 
appointed two pundits as Amils, or revenue collectors, and Musahib Khan Khdnzdda 
of Shahbad (see Shahbdd) was put at the head of the military force. He acted in 
concert with Jowdhir Khan, grandfather of the present Chaudrl of Tijara. 

After a time they quarrelled. Johwdhir Khan and the Amla formed one party 
and Musahib Khan another. The latter got possession of the town, whereupon 
Jowahir Khan called upon the Bdghoria Meos to attack it. 

The Baniyas promised Musahib Khan a ball of gold if he would protect them from 
being plundered, and he accordingly defended the town for two months ; but at length 
the Meos made a successful assault, and entered and fired the town. Musahib Khan 
fought all day, and at night retired to the fort at the great Pathan tomb near the 
Government garden. From this, however, be was driven by the Meos, who, having 
discovered the Baniyas hidden in tke Kazees' quarter, levied Rs. 10,000 from them. 
After this two Marhattas, Imrat Rao and Biswas Rai, were placed in charge of 
Tijdra, Kot Kasim, and Rewdrl. 

In ii. 1211 (A.D.. 1796) the Jats again took Tijara, and one Pundit Sada Naud 
was appointed " Hakim." Sher Ghuldm Hasan and Ghuldm Husain were Amils 
under him. They were constantly fighting with the Meos, and it is said they were 
invulnerable, so that when, after a day's fighting, they at night untied their girdles, 
ten or twelve bullets which had stuck in their clothes would fall to the ground. 

During the period that Mewat was in the hands of the Marhattas Appa Khanda 
Rao assigned the celebrated George Thomas parganas in Mewat for the maintenance 
of his troops. He reached Tijdra on a dark and rainy night, and as the people stole 
a horse, &c., from the very centre of his camp, he attacked the town. His troops 
ran away, but Thomas' courage saved him. He extricated a 9-pounder gun which had 
stuck in a nallah, turned it on the enemy, rallied his men, and drove off their assail- 
ants. The Meos then submitted, paid revenue, and made good the lost property. 
After some villages had been burnt the people became manageable.t 

In A.D. 1805, after the defeat of the Marhattas, Tijdra, with other parganas, was 
conferred on Bakhtdwar Singh Maharao Raja of Ulwur, but the Meo population was 
very rebellious. In H. 1223 (A.D. 1808 ; I give the date from the diary of Muhammad 
Yusiif) Nand Lai, the Ulwur Chief's Diwan, took Indor (see Indor), but there was 
much fighting with the Meos for years, especially in H. 1229 (A.D. 1814), when the 
pargana was measured. 

Tijdra was placed by the Mahardo Rdjd in the charge of one Jahdz, a cJiela or 
slave, who, by exchanging turbans with the principal Meos, established friendly rela- 
tions with them, so that when ordered to send the leading Meos into Ulwur, he had 
no difficulty in getting them to come to a feast, where they were all seized, carried to 

* See also Keene's Mughal Empire, page 195. 
t Skinner's Life, vol. i. p. 203. 

( 132 ) 

Ulwur, and compelled to pay Us. 10,000 for their release. One Bagwan Dass was 
seat to realise the money, and oppressed the Meos much. He was joined by Jahaz, 
who plundered villages Lapdla, Palasll, Nimll, and Alapiir. Khawani Meo of Lupala 
was an active insurgent, and, being seized by Jahaz, was put to death. 

For five years Nawab Ahmad Baksh Khan, the famous Vakeel, held Tijara par- 
gana, for which he paid Rs. 70,000, and iu A.D. 1826 Balwant Singh, illegitimate 
son of Bakhtawar Singh, came to Tijara, which with other territories was conferred 
upon him and his legitimate issue. He lived at first iu a lofty, well-situated palace 
adjoining the town. The garden which was attached to it contains a comfortable 
bungalow, and the ice-house hard by still supplies the Darbar. Eventually Balwant 
Singh resolved to make his fort and chief place of residence on a conspicuous emi- 
nence overhanging a gorge in the hills to the east of the town. Very handsome 
buildings were constructed, chiefly out of the ruins of Alawalpur, and a fine masonry 
dam was thrown across the gorge, whereby a lake was formed. The whole design 
had not reached completion when Balwant Singh died childless, in A.D. 1845, and his 
territory reverted to Ulwur. Since then his fort has been unoccupied, but the situa- 
tion is attractive, and the buildings handsome and commodious, so that it is not 
likely to remain desolate. Balwant Singh left a good reputation behind him in the 
country he ruled for nineteen years. 

Besides the erections of Balwant Singh the grand Pathan tomb, and other 
buildings already mentioned the masonry remains iu and near Tijara which strike 
the eye are a mosque and tomb of a holy disciple of the Ajmlr Khwajas, a mile to the 
north-west of the city, the tomb of a Saiyad about the same distance to the north, 
the tombs of Khanzadas Lai Khan and Alawaldln in the town, and of Hasan Khan 
on the nallah bank to the south. 

The Tijarah hills were once very famous. Ancient legends tell of chiefs 
who had their strongholds within them, and history records the 

Tijarah Mils. 

efforts of emperors to gain and keep possession of them. They 
lie along the north-east border of the Ulwur State, arid form a double range 
running from north to south. They are nowhere more than 1350 feet high. 
Their skirts are often faced by broken ground, advantageous for defence. 
Their slopes and summits are sometimes barren, but oftener covered with 
dhauk and other useful browsing shrubs, while the saneji (a vetch), lamp, and 
bharut grasses are abundant. The hills are so flat at the top that formerly a 
road was run along the summit for many miles, and connected the principal 
Khanzada strongholds (Indor, Kotila, &c.) which were situated on the hills. 
A causeway by village Dhakpuri led from Kotila down into the open valley 
east of Balwaut Singh's bandh, where there are traces of several old towns. 

Through the southern part of this valley runs the only road passable by 
carts from Tijara through the hills. It leads to Firozpur, a town of some 
importance iu the Gurgaom district. 

There are other passes for beasts of burden in the hills near Tijara. The 
best is that via village Arandh, in the valley mentioned above, which is 
reached either by way of Balwant Singh's bandh, or by a passage through the 
first range of hills near village Alapur. This last passage must have been the 
one used between Kotila and Tijara, when both were places of political im- 

( 133 ) 

The Araudli pass is used by travellers from Tijara to the Gurgaom towns 
of Nagina and Pinangwau Shahbad, about two miles west of 
Tijara. Number of houses, 503 ; population, 2369. It has a ].argan, 
good bazaar. The proprietors are Khanzadas, and there are 
some large tombs of its ancient Khanzada possessors. A sanad of Akbar's 
time speaks of "Tijara Shahbad" as though they were the principal towns 
of a district. 

Tiie founder of Shahbad was a Kbanzada from Tijara ; and the most distinguished 
of his line was Firoz Khan, who was made a Nawab by the Dehli emperor, and 
killed in the battle fought in H. 1124 between Jahauddr Shah and Azim-u-shan. He 
received Shahbad and twelve other villages in jdgir. This jaglr was retained until 
M. R. Banni Singh's time, when the family was deprived of it ; but he subsequently 
bestowed the command of fifty horses, which is still held by the family. They 
afterwards held Tijara in farm for ten years. The representatives of the family say 
that being rightfully the jagirdars of Shahbad, they did not claim the " biswadari " 
or proprietorship, as being beneath them, and other Khanzadas descended from the 
founder hold it. It is worthy of note, as showing that some attempt was at times 
made to protect villagers under a contractor, that the patta or lease by which the 
farm was held stipulates that for village expenses (malbah) not more than five per 
cent, on the revenue should be exacted, and that for every plough which abandoned 
the village the farmers should pay a fine of Rs. 100. 

Bhindihi, seven miles from Tijara, on the Kishengarh road, is a Khanzada village. 
It has a small bazaar, and some well-to-do families live there. One 

. . ' . . , , ., BhmdQsf. 

of them has made a garden and resting-place for travellers journeying 
to Kishengarh. There are old mosques and an old tomb of some reputation in the 
village, and on its border a " Salar ka rnakan," or hermitage, the fakir of which 
brought a brick from Mecca one hundred years ago, and a grant was made him by 
two villages in consequence. 

Isroda, five miles north-west of Tijara, is the principal Ahir village. It is on bad 
terms with the Meos. The most noticeable thing about it is the 
masonry house and yard, said to have cost Rs. 12,000, built by a 
chuprassee of one of the Rajputana political agencies a good many years ago. The 
family has, however, been reduced to poverty. 

Baghor is a village of no account now, but from it sprung one of the most power- 
ful Meo clans of Tiiara. Shera Laudhawat of Baghor flourished about 

, . .^T Baghor. 

one hundred and fifty years ago. 

His five sons obtained possession of fifteen villages, their descendants are called 
Baghorias, and they claim still certain proprietory rights hi Baghor. Within 
the Baghor boundary are the ruins of the old Khanzada stronghold of Malikpurf, 
once a place of importance. The road between Tijara and Firozpur has within the 
Baghor boundary a bridge dam on it, which it is hoped will benefit the lands of 
Baghor. Baghor is five miles south-east of Tijara. 

Nimli, the principal village on the Tijara Firozpur road. It is situated seven 
miles from Tijara, within the valley of Balwant Singh's dam. It has N . .. 

a tomb and a mosque and numerous old masonry buildings, which 
show it to have been once a considerable place. Nimli is the principal village of the 
Gorwal Meos. 

( 134 ) 

SareMa, in the same valley, four miles east of Tijara, under the border hills. It 

is a town famous in the history of Khanzadas, who are said to have 

come thence to Tijara. Tej Pal, the first reputed llaja of Tijara, is 

likewise said to have come therefrom, and the Gorwal Meos assert that they sprung 

from Sarehta. 

It is now only a poor Meo village. The ruins of substantial houses about it are 
numerous, and there is a curious old mosque, the pillars of which are evidently taken 
from some ancient Hindu building. It has the narrow tapering bastions one observes 
in gateways at Gwalior and elsewhere. 

Damdamma, in the same valley, four miles north of Sarehta, and only remarkable 
as having within its boundary the ruins of a fortified town named 
Gehrol, formerly occupied by Khanzadas. It is situated at the foot of 
the path which leads up to Kotila, Bahadar Nahar's stronghold, and thence on to 
Indor (see page 3, and Indor). There is a stone causeway over the broken por- 
tion of this path. Several such are to be found in the passes of these hills. They 
are probably imperial works undertaken to maintain the subjection of the Khanzadas 
after Babar had conquered them. 

Mandka, seven miles west of Tijara. The only Saiyad village in the Tahsll. The 
people are connected with the Khairthal Saiyads, and have been estab- 
lished at Mandha for four or five hundred years. There is a half-built 
fort in the village, begun by Faizulla Khan Khanzada of Shahbad, who was in power 
for a time some eighty years ago. He was offended with the Saiyads for refusing a 
matrimonial alliance with him, and to build his fort he destroyed twenty-two of their 
masonry houses (howelis). 

Tapokra, the present headquarters of the pargana, where there are a 
Peshkar and kanuugo under the authority of the Tahsildar of 
Tijara. There is a school at Tapokra, a bazaar, and some con- 
spicuous masonry buildings. It is twelve miles north of Tijara, and lias a 
population of about 600 only. 

Indor gave its name to the present Tapokra pargana, which is indicated 
under that name in the Ain Akbari. It is now almost en- 
tirely in ruins, though once one of the most important places in 
Mewat. The old ruined town lies in a valley of the border hills, ten miles 
east of Tapokra. The fort, which is occupied by a Raj garrison, is on 
the hill range east of the old town, which has shrunk to an insignificant 
village. It is said to be very ancient, and to have been built by the Nikumpa 

After Bahadar Nahar's time Indor seems to have become the chief strong- 
hold of Mewat. The name of Jalal Khan, a descendant of Bahadar Nahar's, 
is the principal one connected with it (see p. 4). The tradition regarding 
him, if not literally true, at least illustrates the right claimed by the clan to 
choose its head notwithstanding hereditary right, and imperial opposition : 

It is said, I believe erroneously, that Ulwur had been the chief Khanzada town 
before Jalal Khan's election ; but on some occasion, when the members had assem- 
bled to pay their respects to their chief, he would not appear, and a slave desired 
them to salute his shoes instead. They all left in a rage, and set up as their leader 

( 135 ) 

Jaldl KMn, who resided at Dddoli, now in the Gurgaom district. Him the Jhamrd- 
wat Khdnzdda noble, whose function it was to impress the tika on the forehead of a 
new chief as it is of a Rahtor Thdkur in Mdrwar, of a Jdt in Bikanir, of a Mind 
in Jaipur duly recognised ; and when subsequently the Khdnzada of Jhamrdwat was 
ordered by the emperor to do homage to the deposed chief of Ulwur, he refused, and 
was in consequence built alive into a wall at Labor. Jaldl Khdn is said to have 
borne sway from Narnol to near Muttra, and northwards to Baunsrf. General Cun- 
ningham has coins which were struck in his name. What is historically known of 
him has been already detailed (page 4). He is spoken of as Jallu. 

Jaldl Khan's tomb is to the south of the fort. It and some about it are impos- 
ing domed structures. There are twelve or fifteen domes in the locality to the 
memory of Khanzada nobles ; and below the fort are the tombs of some Shekhs who 
were of importance at one time in the neighbourhood. 

The hills about Indor are held by the Darbdr, and form extensive grazing grounds 
for camels and cattle, as they are covered with "dauk" trees. A revenue of Rs. 1200 
is derived from them by the State. 

A Khdngdh, or Musalman shrine called Chandan Martyr's, is situated on the 
west range near Indor, and is of some importance, because on the pathway between 
the British town of Noh and several villages of Ulwur ; to the traders and travellers, 
of which this shrine affords a shady resting-spot after a tedious climb up the hill 
range ; and if its tanks were repaired it would furnish them with a drink of water 

The present Khdnzddas of Indor are poor, but they hold the proprietorship, and 
maintain a moollah to call the " Azdn," or summons to prayers, and to educate their 
children. They do not yet plough with their own hands, and they preserve the 
records of better days. One document they produced dated Rabi ul dwal, H. 970, 
and bearing the Emperor Akbar's seal, directs the Chaudri Kdnungo and mukadams 
of " Sirkar Ulwur " to assist certain Khdnzddas of the Indor family, who had been 
commissioned to put down insurrection in that Sirkdr. The Meos for a time were in 
possession of Indor, and in A.D. 1808 Nand Ldl Diwdn captured it. The event was 
regarded by the Darbdr as a very happy one, and M. R. Baktdwar Singh himself 
visited the fort. He travelled by the old hill road vid Gehrol and Kotila already 
mentioned. The Musalman servants of the Raj found the date i.e., H. 1223 in the 
words " Mubdrikbdd fatah killa Indor." 

Alasit, a village a mile south of Tapokra, remarkable for its old mosque (built, 

it is said, by the Pathans more than bOO years ago), which gives 

.. - n Masit. 

its name to the village. 

Jewdno is a Meo village five miles north-east of Tapokra. Its population is very 
small. The village contains a mosque, and other relics of the Khdnza- 
das, who are said to have been ousted by Rdo Rdja Bahddar Singh, the 
Rdjput chief of Gasera, in the Gurgaom district, who built a fort at Jewdno. In 
8. 1810 (A.D. 1753), the year of the great famine known as the " Dasotra," he erected 
near Jewdno a magnificent " bandh," or dam, in the stream, which, during the rains, 
flows from the Eastern hills. It was swept away by a great flood, -which is said to 
have carried fragments seven miles, and that these were sufficient to supply material 
for two wells which still exist. In 8. 1814 (A.D. 1757) the Jdts took Jewdno, and the 
well-to-do all abandoned the place, from dread of cruel extortion. Twenty-two sub- 
stantial houses were thus left unoccupied, and their owners are said not to have 

( 130 ) 

returned. The present traders are new men. In Balwau t Singh's time Jewano was 
held in jaglr by his Rassaladar Balwant Singh. 

Kishengarh is the northern talisil which adjoins Tijara on the west. It 
Kishengarh nas Kot Ka*iim of Jaipur on its north. Like Tijara this tsihsil 
is in Mewat. Its area is about 217 square miles, and its 
population about 61,000. 

There are nine paraganas or sub-divisions in the Tahsil, containing 144 
fiscal villages and 15 rent free. 

The following shows the parganas, fiscal villages, and castes of their 
population : 




a . 







- 2 
J a 




.a a 













"S 00 





















Ismailpur . 





Ban i bora . 









Bagora . . 


7 5 




Pur . . . 





















Khairthal . 





Nurnagar . 















Total . . 















For statistics in detail regarding the tahsil, see pages 187, 191. 
Half the soil of the Kishengarh Tahsil is good. The chief crops grown 
are in order of importance bajra, jawar, barley, and cotton. 

The principal rain stream comes from the Mandawar direction, and much good 
" dahrl " land is formed by it, partly by means of a fine bandh thrown across the 
stream at village Bagheri. It is not a new one, but has been lately greatly improved 
and strengthened. 

The water of the wells is sometimes as deep down as 80 feet, but it usually ranges 
between 15 feet and 35 feet. 

The Mudzinas of Kishengarh bear date F. 1144 (A.D. 1740). The following 
figures will assist some comparison between the past and present : 

Pargana Pur, consisting of twelve villages, is recorded to have had an area of 
16,234 Wghas (Akbari), and a revenue of Rs. 4253. 

Its area, according to the Settlement Survey, is 14,149 bighas, and its revenue 
Rs. 19,680. 

Each of the nine parganas of Kishengarh, except Khairthal, has 

Kantingo. , 

a separate Kanungo. 

Before the Jats came in s. 1791 (A.D. 1734), there was a tahsil at Bambohra, 

Account of where the revenue of Bambohra and neighbouring parganas was col- 

Tahsil. lected. No resistance seems to have been made to the Jats under 

Siiraj Mai by the Dehli Amil of Bambohra, one Kazi Haiyati, whose family still live 

t 137 ) 

at Bambolira, where the Kazi had erected a mosque and Idgah. The following year 
Suraj Mai took Ismailpur and built a small fort (garhi) near it at Siwana, which was 
destroyed by the Marhatta Appa Tantia. 

In s. 1805 (A.D. 1748) Suraj began the fort now known as Kishengarh. 

He first stuck up a lingam in a small temple, built by his officer Kishen Singh, 
near the proposed moat. The temple is called the Kishaneswa. Within the fort a 
temple to Bihariji was built and endowed. The outer ramparts of the fort are earthen^ 
the inner of masonry. 

Kishengarh became the headquarters of a revenue officer, who had under him 
most of the present tahsil. The Jat chief rendered the Bambohra Pass, through 
which the road to Ulwur runs, practicable for carts, and established chauHs on and 
below the pass, which was placed in charge of a Meo of a neighbouring village. On 
the Bambohra side of it a fine garden was made. 

The Jats held Kishengarh until s. 1826 (A.D. 1769), when Mirza Murad Beg and 
Abdulla Beg Mughals came from Dehli and besieged the fort. They placed a battery 
on the Tankaheri hill to the west, and the effects of the bombardment are still appa- 
rent. They took the place and held it for sixteen years. A ruined bazaar known as 
Muradganj was built by them, and two of their tombs remain. 

The Marhattas ousted the Mughals in s. 1841 (A.D. 1784). Eight years after- 
wards Partap Singh took Ismailpur, five miles south-west of Kishengarh, but the 
Marhattas retook it a few months afterwards. 

In s. 1862 (A.D. 1805) General Lake attacked Bhartpur, and a British detach- 
ment occupied Kishengarh, commanded by an officer named Denny. The detach- 
ment remained there six months, after which Kishengarh, with other territory, was 
transferred under treaty to Bakhtawar Singh of Ulwur. 

Fatahabad, Kishengarh, and Ismailpur each at that time had a tahsil. In s. 1866 
(A.D. 1809) the Fatahabad Tahsil was abolished, as also was the Ismailpur tahsil in s. 
1917 (A.D. 1860). In A.D. 1872 the Jhindoli Tahsil was abolished. The villages of 
all these were attached to Kishengarh, which also received, in A.D. 1872, seven villages 
of Bahadarpur, another abolished tahsil. The same year two villages of Khairthal 
were attached to the Mandawar Tahsil, to which, in Bakhtawar Singh's time, some 
Khairthal villages had already been added. 

Kishengarh, the headquarters of the tahsil, has been already spoken of. 
It has 712 houses, and 2216 inhabitants. It is connected by a 
metalled road with Khairthal, Tijara, and Ulwur. 

Bds Kirpdlnagar, a mile to the west of Kishengarh, is the only place of 
considerable trade. It is said there are four or five houses with T7- 5rn &i n . 

Bus Karpalna^ar. 

a capital each of Us. 50,000. It has 380 houses, with a popula- 
tion of 1726. Mahajans are the principal inhabitants. 

Khairthal, on the railway, connected with Kishengarh by a metalled road, ranked 
next to Bas as a place of trade, but the railway will, no doubt, soon Khairthal. 
give it the first place. It has 478 houses, and a population of 2728. 
The principal inhabitants are Saiyads, some of whom have high office in Jaipur. 
Khairthal gives its name to one of the nine old parganas which make up the present 
tahsil of Kishengarh. 

( 138 ) 

Bambohra, the old headquarters of the Imperial Amil, has been already spoken 
of. It has 411 houses, and 1858 inhabitants. It. too, names a par- 



Pur, the old headquarters of a pargana, has but 198 houses, 
and 993 inhabitants. 

Nftrna Niliiiagar, though the head of a pargana of thirteen villages, has 

but 92 houses and 395 inhabitants. 

Ilarsoli, the fifth pargana headquarters, is a fine village ; but as it 
is held rent-free by the Majee, there is no information about it. 

Bdghora. which named the sixth pargana, has 125 houses, and 
BAgbora. . ' ' 

779 inhabitants. 

Ismailpur, head of the seventh pargana, has 609 houses, and 2659 
Ismailpur. . . . . 


Bahddarpur is in the Ulwur Tahsil, though four of its villages are 
Babadarpur. . .. . , , 

in the Kishengarh. 

Fatahabdd, the chief village of the ninth pargana, has 109 houses, and 628 in- 
habitants. Formerly it was, as ruins show, a considerable place, but 
some of its wealthy merchants are said to have mortally offended the 
Khanzadas of Alamdl, a village not far off, and the latter, about one hundred and fifty 
years ago, put them to death by fastening thongs (tdnt) round their testicles, and drag- 
ging them till they died. Their relations brought the Jats of Bhartpur upon the Khan- 
zadas, who retaliated by destroying Fatahabdd, in conjunction with some Meos, and it 
has never recovered from the devastation. The locality has a bad reputation, as the 
following popular rhyme shows : 

" A-gam kamaya pacham kamaya, 

Khub kamaya paisa ; 
Aya Fatahabad ki gunf, 
Jaisa ka taisa." 

" Far I went in search of gain, 

And much gain I got ; 
But when I reached Fatahabad hollow 
I was as empty as I started." 

The northern tahsil on the west of Kishengarh is Mandawar. The foreign 
Mandawar territory adjoining it is the Nabha pargana of Bawal, and the 

Tahsil. group of isolated British villages, of which Shahjahanpur, 
famous for its Mina Dacoits, is the chief. It is situated partly in the tract 
known as Kaht, partly in Mewat. The area of the tahsil is about 229 square 
miles, and its population about 54,000. 

There are 127 fiscal and 17 jagir villages in the six pnrganas or frag- 
ments of parganas. The fiscal are as follows : 

( 139 ) 






















Kami Kot 















KLshengarh pargana 









I 9 








Total .... 










* And one depopulated. 

For statistics in detail see pages 187, 191. 

The soil of the MandaVar Tahsil is for the most part good, though there 
is a large percentage of inferior. The chief crops grown are, in order of quan- 
tity, bajra, gram, barley, jawar. 

On the banks of the Sabi and elsewhere there is some inferior . 

DaJiri, but scarcely any very good, and not much of any. 

The depth below the surface at which water is sometimes first met with is 80 feet, 
but usually it varies from 20 feet to 40 feet. 

The tract included in the Mandawar Tahsil has been chiefly in the hands 
of the Chuhan Thakurs, spoken of under Aristocracy. Manda- 

,,,,,,, Mandawar 

war is mentioned among the parganas ceded to the Maharao town and 
of Ulwur by Lord Lake. 


The town of Mandawar is nearly surrounded by hills, outworks, as it were, of the 
rocky region further south. They run up to a height of 1757 feet, and have afforded 
a refuge to the family of the Rao in times of difficulty. Springs and water-tanks, and 
even wells, are to be met with in these hills, which abound in panthers, and the people 
around are much harassed by these animals. Oue spring and tank known as Bok 
Raja's " Kund " is a sacred bathing-place. 

It has already been mentioned that Mandawar is the seat of the Musalman Rao of 
a great Chauhan family. The traders are of the Mahur clan, which supplanted the 
Khandelwal, formerly established at Mandawar. The ruin of the Khandelwal and 
the rise of the Mahur is attributed to the curse of a fakir, whom the former, notwith- 
standing their wealth, sent to be entertained by the latter. Khanzadas formerly 
occupied a hamlet of Mandawar, but abandoned it on discovering the intention of the 
Rao to destroy them. 

Besides the Rao's residence, the buildings of note are mosques and tombs. One 
of the mosques has an inscription showing that it was constructed in Akbar's time. 
Close to the town in the hills is a large and ancient tank known as the Sagar Sah. 

( 140 ) 

When, many years ago, it was broken down the neighbourhood suffered much from 
the subsidence of water in wells. It was, however, restored in 8. 1909, but requires 
cleaning out. 

There is a Thana, as well as a Tahsfl, at Mandawar. The number of houses is 
482 and the population 2337. It is twenty-two miles north of Ulwur. 

Kddiniagar has a police post here. The village is situated eight miles south of 
Mandawar. There is a ruined bandh here, which, if built substantially, 
would give the village some dahri. 

Jhindoli gives its name to a pargana. It is ten miles south of Mandawar. The 
village belonged to the Chauhans of Pahal. It has 334 houses and a 
population of 1549 people. 

Pahal, three miles south of Mandawar. The Chauhans of this place played an 
important part in local history, and did brave service for the Jaipur 
chief in the last century. They hold the village on an Istamrarl 
tenure. The present population is very small. There are ruins of fine buildings on 
the hills above it. Iron-smelting is carried on at Pahal. 

Karnikot, eight miles north-west of Mandawar, on the Sabf, is only remarkable as 
having a small fort and a police post. The fort was built by M. R. 
Bakhtawar Singh in 1862. 

Bywdr, the seat of a tdzirrii Chauhan Thakur connected with the Pahal family. It 
has 312 houses and 1602 inhabitants. A rampart encircles the village. 
It is eight miles north-west of Mandawar. 
rhalsa. Phalsd has 358 houses and 1988 inhabitants. 






The Bahror Tdhsil forms the north-west territory of the State. 

In passing round its border it will be found that the civil 

Bahror Tahsil. . . " f . .. . ., . . 

jurisdiction of the territory just outside it changes seven times. 
On the south-west is a little of Kot Putli lying between the Sabi and the Sot a, 
then conies Patiala territory, then Nabha. On the north is Gurgaom. North- 
east, Nabha territory (the Bawal pargana) is again met with, then a point of 
Ulwur, then the detached Shahjahanpur and other villages of Gurgaom, and 
finally Ulwur territory. 

The Bahror Tahsil is in the Kaht. 

Its area is about 264 square miles, and its population about 60,000. 

There are three parganas, containing 131 fiscal and 20 rent-free villages. 







~ r; 








































Total . 









See pages 187, 191, for detailed statistics. 

( 141 ) 

The revenue crop rates were introduced under the direction of Amu Jan, 
the Diwan from Dehli of M. R. Banni Singh. They appear to have been ex- 
tionally heavy, if the character of the soil be considered. They were per Raj 
bigha ('4 of an acre) as follows : 


M;i n dun. 


Wheat .... 





Barley .... 


3 8 



. . . 

Barley (unirrigated) 



Cotton (irrigated) . 

3 12 




2 12 


1 12 

Jawar (irrigated) 





2 10 


Indian corn (irrigated) 



2 13 

Gram .... 



Bajra .... 

1 12 




1 6 

. . . 

Moth and inferior pulses < 

1 4 
1 2 


C 15 

The soil of the tahsil is very poor in Mandan. On the whole, about half is 
good, half inferior and bad. The chief crops grown are in order of extent, 
bajra, moth, gram, barley. 

There is no flooded land (dahri) outside the beds of nallahs, and but very little 
culturable uallah land (katli). This last lies along the bed of the Sota and Sabi nal- 
lahs, which unite at Islampur, five miles south-east of the town of Bahror. 

The depth below the surface of water is often considerable, sometimes as much as 
130 feet, but usually varying from 20 feet to 50 feet. 

The mudzinas of the Bahror pargaua bear date F. 1176 (A.D. 1771). Those of the 
Barod F. 1237 (A.D. 1734). 

According to these mudzinas the area of eighteen villages amounted to 35,731 
bighas,* and their revenue to Rs. 8766. The Settlement survey makes the same 
villages 26,856 bighas, and they have been assessed at Rs. 32,839. 

The parganas of Bahror formed part of the Narnol subah during the Mughal 
Imperial period, but I believe that Chauhans were generally the principal rulers of 
the country up to the occupation of it by the Jats, who took possession of Bahror, and 
were succeeded there by Partap Singh. The hold of the latter, however, was feeble. 
Nimrana, the chief of which is almost independent of Ulwur, lies to the north-east 
of Bahror (see p, 121). Bargujar jagirdars are also of some importance, their chief 
village is Tahsin. 

The town of Bahror is situated thirty-four miles north-west from Ulwur, and 
twelve miles south-east of Narnol the nearest town of importance. 
It has 1030 houses and 5368 inhabitants. 


Tliis muazina bigha wasevideutly the bame as the present Raj bigha. 

( H2 ) 

There is a mud fort about 50 yards square, with a Raj garrison, and besides the 
tahsil, a police post, and school, a new school-building has been erected. 

There is a fair bazaar, numerous masonry buildings and gardens, but the town is 
said never to have recovered from its spoliation by the Marhattas s.1860. 

Mdndan, sixteen miles north-east of Bahror, was the headquarters of a separate 
tahsil. It has a population of about 2000. On the hill above it is 
a fort made of slate. A Hindu shrine is a conspicuous object a little 
above the town. 

Nimrdna, ten miles north-east of Bahror. Only remarkable as the seat of the 
Maharaja of Nimrana, whose position has been already described. He 
has a fort and palace on the slope of a hill range, but it is in a dilapi- 
dated condition. 

BdroJ. The Chauhan Thakur of this place has already been mentioned. It is the 
old headquarters of a pargana. It is six miles east of Bahror ; a 
" rund " full of game lies near it on the west. 

The Middle parganas, or those just below the four northern, and 
Middle .i us ^ above the four southern, are Govindgarh, Ramgarh, Ulwur, 

parganas. BatlSUr. 

Goviudgarh is the eastern-most of the middle parganas. It juts out, 
forming, so to speak, a peninsular of Ulwur in Bhartpur territory. It is in 
Mewat, is about 52 square miles in extent, and has a population of about 

The tahsil consists of but one pargana. It contains 3 rent-free and 
53 fiscal villages ; the detail of the latter is as follows : 










Goviudgarh . . . 







Ramgarh .... 





Total .... 







For fuller statistics see pages 187, 191. 

TUe soil of the Govindgarh Tahsil is for the most part good. The chief 
crops grown are bajra, cotton, and jawar. 

Formerly this pargana was irrigated by the water of the Ruparel, brought 
into it by the Hazdri Bandh, the dam on the Ruparel, which affected the 
battle of Laswarree. The darn was very valuable to the Govindgarh Tahsil, 
but after an inquiry into the respective claims of the two states, it has been 
determined that the water is not to be obstructed during the rains, but to be 
allowed to flow freely into Bhartpur. 

At present the dahri or flooded land is almost confined to seven villages. Pfpal- 
khera and Nakatpur, a pair of detached villages lying in Bhartpur territory beyond 
the Sikri bandh, and Bakshuka and Mallki, a second pair similarly situated. These 
four villages lie beyond the Sikrl bandh an important irrigation work on the Ru- 

Average annual 
collections for 
ten years from 
A.D. 1828. 

Khera Malium<l ... 




Muudpur Kalan 
Ratnbas ... 




HarsoU . 


parel in Bhartpur, just beyond the Ulwur border, and they get the surplus water of 
the stream. Pagseri, Doroli, and Saidampur, on the Qovindgarh side the bandh, 
likewise get water when it is abundant. 

The well water of the pargaua is from 10 feet to 25 feet below the 
surface. It is never deep. 

There are no old mudzinas in the Govindgarh Tahsil, but the sums collected from 
the villages from s. 1885 (A.D. 1828) are on record. The following Tahgil records> 
will assist comparison between former and present collections. 

Present Assess- 


The change in the productiveness of the pargana is dwelt on in the 
Settlements Report, p. 184 Acwmnt of 

In the time of M. R. Bakhtawar Singh, a family of Khanzadas 
held many villages round the present site of Govindgarh. Nawab 
Zulfikar Khan was the principal. His seat was known as the Fort of Ghasaoli. 
About A.D. 1803 Bakhtawar Singh, in conjunction with the Marhattas, expelled him 
and the 500 horse he is said to have employed. Ghasaoli fort was destroyed, and 
the site of it is now a Raj grass preserve. The local seat of authority was removed 
to Govindgarh, a spot very near the old fort. The present fort is said to have been 
built by Bakhtawar Singh in s. 1862 (A.D. 1805). It is remarkable for the extent 
of its moat. 

There are a Thana Tahsil and school in Govindgarh, and the population is 4290. 
The town is twenty-five miles east of Ulwur. 

Bainsrdwat, a village four miles south of Govindgarh, containing inhabi- 

tants. Here there is a platform and building (thara) where for- 
merly Nar Khan Khanzada, brother of Zulfikar Khan, already men- 
tioned, dispensed justice, and a ruined fort in which he resided. It is curious that 
people of the neighbouring villages, which belonged to Nar Khan or his brother, still 
come to this thara to settle disputes by oath. 

It is common enough to find cultivators established on the soil, and paying no 
more than the revenue fairly chargeable on the land they hold. But the cultivators 
of Bainsrawat, whether baniyas, chumars, mails, or kasais, are, contrary to common 
custom, permitted to make wells, which they claim as their own. 

Pipalkhera, miles north-east of Govindgarh, with 439 houses and a popula- 

tion of 1833. It is, with Nakatpur, situated within Bhartpur, and the _^ 
two villages do not at any point touch Ulwur territory. The village, 
with others about it, formerly was held in jagir by a family of Naruka Rajputs, whose 
claim to proprietory right has been lately recognised in part. 

( 144 ) 

Ramgarh is the middle tahsil next to Qovindgarh, which it adjoins, but 
most of its eastern border lies along Bhartpur territory, and several Bhartpur 
villages are isolated within its limits. It also is in Mewat. Its extent is 
about 146 square miles, and it has a population of 51,000. 















Ramgarh ... 








Bahadarpur . 








Total . 








The Meos are chiefly of the Nai and Dulot clans. 

For Kevenue Statistics see Appendix, page 188, 192. 

The soil of the Ramgarh Tahsil is generally rich where subject to floods, 
elsewhere it is for the most part light. The chief crops grown are bajra, 
barley, jawar. 

The dahri or flooded land of Ramgarh is the best in the state. The richest is 
that which the Chiihar Sidh nallah covers. There is also some very good upon the 
Lindwah. The principal bandh or dam in the tahsfl is the Atria, the object of which 
is to compel the Lindwah to flow along the foot of the western hills, in order to be 
utilised by several villages. Smaller embankments in continuation of the main work 
further this. 

The Lindwah, which at first flows south, turns to the north-east ; and south of the 
village of Nogaom there is a dam which turns the water into a canal conveying it to 
the British territory beyond the border. TheUlwur villagers and officials have been 
prohibited from destroying the dam and from obstructing the flow of the canal. The 
people of Banjir Nagla, the border village of the Ulwur Tahsfl, upon the Chiihar 
Sidh, have recently renewed an old practice of making an earthen dam to raise the 
water of the Chiihar Sidh. Ordinarily the dam will be swept away by the first 
week's rain, but the rains might be too scanty to destroy it, in which case it should, 
I think, be cut within a month of the first rainfall. 

Buja in the west of the tahsil is, I think, the only village where a bandh requires 

Water is occasionally as many as 60 feet below the surface, but for the most part 
it is not deep down, especially in the villages irrigated by the Lindwah and Chiihar 
Sidh. Its average depth is from 10 to 25 feet. 

There are several ranges of hills in Ramgarh or on its borders. The most con- 
tinuous is that to the west. It is remarkable for the stone causeways 
which have been made through its passes, over which horses and ele- 
phants can travel. Kalaghatta, or Black Pass, so called from the colour of its soft 
elatey stone, is said to be the oldest ; then Rupbas Pass, to the south of it. Further 
south is Daneta Paas, the most extensive causeway of all. Again south is the Kho 


( 145 ) 

Pass causeway, made by the disciples of Lai Das, who frequented these hills, and south 
of that the Baraod Pass causeway, made thirty years ago by a banniah named Dull 

Through a break in these hills there was a good deal of traffic between TJlwur and 
Delhi, vid villages Untwal, Bijwar, and Nogawan. The hills are generally somewhat 
lower and less regular than the Tijara range, and the grazing is less valuable. 

One hundred and fifty years ago there were no habitations on the present site of 
Ramgarh. Some Chumars. under one Bhoja, were first settled there, 

.... , , Account of 

in order to relieve their brethren when acting as begars or pressed R&mgarh and 
porters, between the large villages to the north and Uiwur. The place neighbourhood, 
was called Bhojpur, and the Chumars were wealthy enough to build masonry houses. 

In s. 1802 or 1803, Padam Singh Naruka occupied Bhojpur. He seems to have re- 
ceived the village in Jagir from Jaipur, and to have been assisted in establishing him- 
self by the Khanzada of Ghasaolf, mentioned under Govindgarh. Padam Singh made 
the place prosperous, extended his power, and built the fort, which was called Ramgarh. 

There were then two parganahs within the limits of the present tahsil one 
Khilora, the other Mubarakpur. Ramgarh was in Khilora. 

Sanip Singh succeeded his father Padam Singh, whose widow Jodhi ji became 
Sati. A chattri and well to the south of the town known as mdha satti, marks the 
scene of the sacrifices. 

As detailed elsewhere, Sariip Sing, who possessed the present Lachmangarh as well 
as Ramgarh, came into collision with Partap Singh whom he opposed, or would not 
co-operate with, against the Khanzada of Ghasaoli, and Partap Singh having got him 
into his power cruelly murdered him. 

The Thakur's manager, Nand Lai, by the aid of a Meo of Khilora, escaped to Ramgarh 
where he resisted the Raja for some time, but eventually had to evacuate the fort. 
The Tahsil of Ramgarh was then formed, consisting of Khilora and Marakpur and the 
fort enlarged. 

The Kanungoes or accountants of the two old parganahs were summoned to 
Ramgarh, and most of the Khilora traders. 

Besides the tahsil there is a thana and school at Ramgarh. It is thirteen miles 
east of Alwar city, and contains 900 houses, and 5474 inhabitants. 

Aldora, four miles east of Ramgarh, has 407 houses and 1437 inhabitants. It pays 
a higher revenue than any village in the tahsil, and its land may be 
regarded as a type of the rich flooded land of the tahsil. There are 
about a dozen villages with similar land, and perhaps fifteen bearing crops worth 
twenty-five per cent. less. However, the well-being of Alaora, and many other 
villages, is entirely dependent upon the arrival of the waters of the Chuhar sidh, which 
often do not reach so far ; Alaora is said to have been formerly a more considerable 
village than it is at present, and a stone four kos to the east of it is said to have 
marked its boundary. 

There was once a fine tank north-west of the village said to have been constructed 
by a Ranf. Beside it are the ruins of an elegant twelve-pillared Musalmau tomb. 
A song in praise of the Rani who made the tomb is current. 

Ndswdrri, eight miles south-east of Rdmgarh, far better known as Las- 
warree, is an inconsiderable village, but will be for ever famous 
in the annuls of British India on account of the important 
victory there won by Lord Lake on November 1st, 1803. A full account of this 

( no ) 

battle is not now easily obtainable. I therefore insert a somewhat long 
narrative based on and partly extracted from Thorn's history of the war. 
Affecting as it did the permanent British relations with Ulwur, and to some 
extent with the neighbouring states, the victory was an event most important 
to Rajputana. 

After the battle of Dehli, in which Lord Lake defeated the Harhattas under M. 
Louis Bonquin, there still remained fifteen regular battalions, which Siudiah had sent 
from the Daeccan under the command of M. Dudernaique. The latter surrendered 
himself to the British force at Muttra, but his battalions remained intact, and were, 
indeed, augmented by two others, which had escaped from Dehli. 

This powerful force made no attempt to prevent the capture of Agra by Lord Lake, 
its object being to recover Dehli, the recapture of which was regarded by Sindiah as 
of the first importance to his prestige. 

Lord Lake marched westward from Agra on October 27, 1803, against this 
force, which was known to be on the borders of Mewat. His army consisted of the 
8th, 27th, and 29th Dragoons, the 1st, 2d, 3d, 4th, and 6th Native Cavalry, His Ma- 
jesty's 76th Foot, the 2d battalion of the 8th, 9th, 12th, and 15th Native Infantry, 
the 1st battalion of the 12th and 15th Native Infantry, six companies of the 16th 
Native Infantry, one company of 1st battalion llth Native Infantry. 

In the afternoon of the 29th October, " a heavy cannonade was heard, which proved 
to be occasioned by the bombardment of Katumbar, which place the enemy entirely 
destroyed. The next day the army effected a forced march of twenty miles, leaving 
the heavy guns and baggage at Futtypur, under the protection of two battalions of 
Native Infantry, belonging to the 4th brigade. Exertions were made in order to 
accelerate our advance upon the enemy ; and, accordingly, on the 31st, we encamped 
at a small distance from the ground which, they had occupied near Katumbar the same 
morning. In consequence of finding them thus near, the commander-in-chief resolved 
upon making an immediate effort to come up with them at the head of the cavalry, 
with whom he might keep them employed, and endeavour to seize their guns and 
baggage, till, by the junction of the British infantry, who had orders to follow at three 
in the morning, full advantage might be taken of the confusion produced by his 
attack. In pursuance of this determination, General Lake set out with the whole of 
the cavalry the same night at eleven o'clock ; and after a march of twenty-five miles, 
in little more than six hours, came up with the object of his pursuit about sunrise on 
the morning of the 1st November." 

The enemy's force consisted of 17 regular battalions of infantry, to the number of 
about 9000 men, 72 guns, and 4000 to 5000 cavalry. On our approach it appeared 
that the enemy were upon the retreat, and that in such confusion as to induce the 
British general to make an instant attack upon them, without waiting for the arrival 
of the infantry. The enemy, on their part, were not wanting in the adoption of 
measures for their defence, and the annoyance of our troops. With this view, by 
cutting the embankment* across the nallah, the road was rendered extremely difficult 
for the passage of cavalry, a circumstance which, while it impeded our progress, gave the 
enemy an opportunity of choosing an advantageous position, their right being in front of 
the village of Laswaree, and thrown back upon a rivulet, the banks of which were so 
very steep as to be extremely difficult of access ; while their left was upon the village of 

* The Hazari Bandh. 

















'> '" , '-:.. 


1^- mm 
r-k :l ' JP -^' 

0^ & 

4.0.*^' ^ ^ 

Jaumporc + -^? c ^'"9?> 




A A. ist Position of enemy's right wing 

during British Cavalry attack. 
DD. Position of ditto after arrival of 

British Infantry. 
DO. Position of ditto during attack of 

British Infantry. 
H. 2Qih Dragoons. E. British Infantry. 

Mohaulpore, and their entire front, which lay concealed from view by high grass, was 
defended by a most formidable line of artillery. In addition to these securities of 
force and situation, the enemy derived an advantage of no small moment from the 
immense cloud of dust raised by the movement of the cavalry, which so completely 
obscured the change that had taken place in their position, as to render it impossible 
for General Lake to avail himself of the circumstance, or to be guided by his observa- 
vations, where so many perplexities contributed to produce embarrassment. These 
obstacles, however, which would have deterred an ordinary mind from attempting a 
desirable object till the prospect of success became more decided, had no other effect 
on the commander-in-chief than that of leading him to the prompt execution of his 
original plan, and confirming his resolution of preventing the retreat of the enemy, and 
of securing the possession of their artillery. Thus fixed in his determination, he 
ordered the advanced guard, with the 1st brigade of cavalry, to move upon the point 
where the enemy had been previously seen in motion, but which was, in fact, now be- 
come the left of their new position. This plan of attack was directed to be followed 
up by the remainder of the cavalry in succession, as- fast as they could form, immedi- 
ately on crossing the rivulet. 

" The obedience of the troops and the alacrity of their officers corresponded with 
the energy and daring spirit of their leader, as appeared in the charge made by the 
advanced guard, under Major Griffiths, of His Majesty's 29th Regiment of Dragoons, 
and aide-de-camp to the Governor-General, as also in that of the 1st brigade, con- 
ducted by Colonel T. P. Vandeleur, of His Majesty's 8th Regiment of Dragoons. 
With so much impetuosity were these charges made that the enemy's line was forced, 
the cavalry penetrated into the village, and several guns were taken ; but the advan- 
tage was dearly purchased by the loss of the brave Colonel Vandeleur, who was 
mortally wounded. The attacks made by the other brigades of cavalry were con- 
ducted with the same spirit and success. The 3d brigade, under the command of 
Colonel Macan, which was next in succession, consisting of the 29th Regiment of 
Dragoons and the 4th Regiment of Native Cavalry, attracted particular notice on this 
occasion. Having received orders to turn the right flank of the enemy, this brigade 
came up with them at a gallop across the nallah, under a heavy fire from their bat- 
teries ; then forming instantly into line, and moving on steadily, charged the foe in 
the face of a tremendous fire from all their artillery and musketry. To the former 
were fastened chains running from one battery to another, for the purpose of imped- 
ing the progress of assailants ; while, to make the execution more deadly, the enemy re- 
served their fire till our cavalry came within the distance of 20 yards of the muzzles of the 
guns, which, being concealed by the high grass jungle, became perceptible only when 
a frightful discharge of grape and double-headed shot mowed down whole divisions, 
as the sweeping storm of hail levels the growing crop of grain to the earth. But 
notwithstanding the shock of this iron tempest, and the awful carnage produced by it 
in our ranks, nothing could repress the ardour of the cavalry, whose velocity overcame 
every resistance. Having penetrated through the enemy's line, they immediately 
formed again, and charged backwards and forwards three times, with surprising order 
and effect, amidst the continued roar of cannon and an incessant shower of grape 
and chain shot." 

The cavalry had extraordinary difficulties to overcome, for no sooner had they 
charged through than the artillerymen of the enemy, who, to save themselves, had 
taken shelter under their guns, when our men had passed, reloaded them, and fired 

upon our rear. Their battalions, which were drawn up behind a deep entrenchment 
covered by backeries, carts, bullocks, and other cumbrous baggage, kept up a galling 
fire with musketry, which did great execution. 

" On their side also numbers fell in this severe struggle ; and though all the guns 
immediately opposed to our troops were virtually taken and in our possession, yet, for 
the want of draught bullocks and infantry to secure what we had so dearly earned, 
only two out of the number taken could be brought away. Though this severe con- 
flict was distinguished by all the characteristics of British valour, in the resolute 
firmness of the cavalry to carry their object, such was the inequality of the force 
engaged in the combat, and the destructive effects of the fire from the guns still 
remaining in the hands of the enemy, as to render it prudent to recall the brigade out 
of their reach ; and, accordingly, just as the brave Colonel Macau was in the act of 
leading on his men for the fourth time to the charge, orders were received to rejoin 
the main body." 

While the perilous contest was thus raging, the British infantry was approaching. 
It arrived on the banks of the rivulet by noon. After a fatiguing march of twenty-five 
miles under a burning sun, the infantry required some rest and refreshment, which 
was ordered. Meanwhile, such was the effect of their presence upon the enemy, that 
a message was sent to the commander-in-chief with an offer of surrendering all their 
guns upon certain conditions, to which a favourable answer was returned. An hour 
was granted for the fulfilment of the conditions, but the British general continued his 
preparations for an attack should the enemy prove false. 

" The infantry were formed into two columns on the left, the first composed of 
the right wing, under the command of Major-General Ware being appointed to attack 
the village of Mohaulpore, and to turn the right flank of the enemy, which ever since 
the morning had been thrown back, thereby concentrating their entire force round 
that place, which was strongly fortified. Their infantry, formed into two lines, were 
defended in front by a numerous train of artillery, having the cavalry on their right 
and their left appuyed on Mohaulpore. 

" The second column of the British infantry, forming the left wing, under Major- 
General St. John, was directed to support the first column, while the cavalry drew 
the attention of the enemy to the hostile demonstration in front, which threatened 
their left. The 3d brigade of cavalry, under Colonel Macan, received instructions 
to support the infantry ; while Lieutenant-Colonel John Vandeleur, with the 2d 
brigade, was detached to the right of our line, in order, by watching the motions of 
the enemy, to take advantage of any confusion that might occur among them, and in 
case of a retreat to attack them with vigour. The reserve composed of the 1st 
brigade, under Lieutenant-Colonel Gordon, who had succeeded to the command on the 
death of Colonel T. P. Vandeleur was formed between the 2d and 3d brigades; 
while as many field-pieces as could be brought up, together with the galloper guns 
attached to the cavalry, formed four distinct batteries for the support of the operations 
of the infantry. 

" Such was the disposition of our force, and the plan of attack drawn up in the 
interval allowed for the performance of the conditions of surrender proposed by the 
enemy ; on whose failure to fulfil what they had promised, the British infantry pro- 
ceeded, marching along the banks of the rivulet under cover of the high grass, and 
amidst the broken ground that for some time concealed their advance. As soon, how- 
ever, as they were discerned, and it was ascertained that their object was to turn the 

( H9 ) 

flank of the enemy, the latter instantly threw back their right wing, under cover of 
heavy discharges of artillery against the head of our column, which suffered consider- 
ably. At the same time, our four batteries began to play with no less vigour ; and 
the whole continued to advance during this tremendous cannonade, in spite of the 
vast superiority beth in numbers and weight of metal of the enemy's artillery, which 
was uncommonly well served, showers of grape being poured upon the assailants from 
large mortars, as well as from guns of heavy calibre. The effect of the fire, which 
was terrible in the extreme, was felt with peculiar severity by the 76th Regiment, 
which fine body, by leading the attack, as usual became the direct object of destruc- 
tion. So great, indeed, was the loss of this corps, that the commander-iu-chief deemed 
it advisable to hasten the attack with that regiment and those of the native infantry, 
consisting of the 2d battalion of the 12th and five companies of the 16th, which had 
closed to the front, and to wait till the remainder of the column should be formed, 
whose advance had been much delayed by unavoidable impediments." 

When this resolution was adopted, and the gallant band came within reach of the 
enemy's canister shot, a most galling fire was poured on them from the whole train of 
the enemy'i artillery. At this moment the enemy's cavalry attempted to charge, but 
the infantry effectually checked it, and it recoiled, but with the manifest intention of 
trying another attack. So General Lake judged it prudent to order an attack to be 
made upon them in turn from the British cavalry, which service being entrusted 
to His Majesty's 29th Regiment of Dragoons, was performed to the entire satisfaction 
of the commander-in-chief. 

" This regiment, which had previously moved along the banks of the rivulet, in 
order to support the main attack, had halted for that purpose in a hollow immediately 
behind our battery, the fire from which occasioned so violent a one in return as to 
render their situation exceedingly trying ; for, though partly concealed from the view 
of the enemy, the shot rolled and ploughed up the ground in every direction among 
our ranks, with the most mischievous effect. While in this position, which was ren- 
dered more painful by the necessity of waiting in a state of passive endurance, the 
gallant Major Griffiths was killed, on whose loss the command devolved upon Captain 
Wade. At length, however, the welcome order arrived for the regiment to charge ; 
which injunction was no sooner given than it was as promptly obeyed, and the troops 
galloped out of the narrow passage, where they had been so perilously posted, by files, 
as the ground would not admit of a larger front. 

" On forming up on the outer flank of the 76th Regiment, the cavalry was greeted 
with three cheers, which was heartily re-echoed by the dragoons, on whose sudden 
appearance the enemy's horse, after having advanced to charge our infantry, made a 
precipitate retreat. An awful pause of breathless expectation now ensued. The 
numerous artillery of the enemy seemed to watch an opportune moment to frustrate 
the meditated attack, by pouring destruction upon their assailants. The affecting 
interest of the scene was heightened by the narrow escape of the commander-in-chief, 
whose charger having been shot under him, his gallant son, Major George Lake, while 
in the act of tendering his own horse to" the general, was wounded by his side. This 
touching incident had a sympathetic effect upon the minds of all that witnessed it, and 
diffused an enthusiastic fervour among the troops, who appeared to be inspired by it 
with a more than ordinary heroic ardour. The cavalry trumpet now sounded to the 
charge ; and though it was instantly followed by the thundering roar of a hundred 
pieces of cannon, which drowned every other call but an instinctive sense of duty, the 

( 150 ) 

whole, animated with one spirit, rushed into the thick of battle. The 29th, now the 
25th Regiment of Dragoons, pierced with the impetuosity of lightning through both 
lines of the enemy's infantry, in the face of the most tremendous fire of grape shot 
and a general volley of musketry. This advantage was followed up instantly by our 
veteran chief, who, at the head of the 76th Regiment, supported by the 12th, 15th, 
and a detachment of the 16th Regiment of Native Infantry, seized the guns from 
which the enemy had just been driven. The 29th Dragoons, after this achievement, 
made a wheel to the left to charge the enemy's horse, who had assumed a menacing 
posture ; and after completely routing and pursuing them to the pass through the 
hills, our cavalry fell upon the rear of the main body, and entirely cut off their retreat. 
During these rapid operations, the infantry still continuing to press forward, routed 
the enemy against whom they were opposed, and succeeded in driving them towards a 
small mosque in the rear of the village, about which they were met and charged by 
the British cavalry in various directions. The remainder of the first column of our 
infantry came up just in time to join the attack of the reserve of the enemy, which 
was formed in the rear of their first line. At this period of the battle Major-General 
Ware fell dead, his head being carried off by a cannon shot. He was an excellent 
officer, and his loss was severely felt and deeply lamented by the whole army. After 
his death, the command of this column devolved upon Colonel Macdonald, who, though 
wounded, continued in the exercise of the important trust with the utmost judgment, 
activity, and intrepidity till the close of the action. 

" The enemy persisted with determined obstinacy in defending their position to 
the last, contending every point inch by inch, and refusing to give way till they had 
lost the whole of their guns ; and even then, when their situation was become des- 
perate, they still continued to manifest the same courageous disposition, their left 
wing endeavouring to effect their retreat in good order ; but this attempt was frus- 
trated by the 27th Regiment of Dragoons, and the 6th Regiment of Native Cavalry, 
commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel John Vaudeleur of the 8th Light Dragoons, who 
broke into their column, cut many to pieces, and captured the rest, with the whole 
of the baggage. 

" The loss sustained by the British army in accomplishing this victory was great, 
amounting to about eight hundred in killed and wounded ; but that of the enemy far 
exceeded it, for, with the exception of two thousand who surrendered themselves 
prisoners, the whole of their seventeen battalions were destroyed, so that the dead 
alone on the field of battle could hardly have been less than seven thousand men. 
Though some of their cavalry were enabled, by the fleetness of their horses and local 
knowledge, to escape destruction, the rest, except those who had the good fortune to 
conceal themselves among the bazaar people, were numbered with the slain. 

"Ahajee, the commander of the Mahratta army, abandoned the field on an 
elephant richly caparisoned, which, on finding himself closely pressed by the British 
dragoons, he relinquished, and mounting a swift horse, succeeded in getting off, as 
our men were unable, from the exhausted state of their horses, to continue the 

" The battle, which terminated at four o'clock, gave to the victors the whole of 
the enemy's bazaars, with the camp equipage and baggage, a considerable number of 
elephants, camels, and above sixteen hundred bullocks, seventy-two pieces of cannon, 
five thousand stand of arms, forty-four stands of colours, sixty four tumbrils laden 
with ammunition and three with money, besides fifty-seven carts containing stores of 

( 151 ) 

various descriptions. The military apparatus and supplies were of prime quality ; and 
the ordnance in particular, with the exception of nine guns, was perfectly serviceable. 
From the commencement of the conflict early in the morning with the British cavalry, 
to the close of the general action in the evening, the enemy discovered a firmness of 
resolution and contempt of death which could not fail to command the admiration of 
their opponents, whose energies in the struggle were strained to the utmost, though 
nothing could repress their ardour, or withstand the impetus of their united exertions. 
The seventeen battalions with whom our army were engaged constituted the flower of 
Scindiah's establishment, and, by way of pre-eminent distinction, were characterised 
as the " Deccan Invincibles." Their total overthrow, therefore, completed the humilia- 
tion of this formidable Mahratta chief by depriving him of that power which his 
military superiority, with the aid of the French force, enabled him to maintain in 

" Throughout this eventful war, indeed, every conflict gave evidence of the im- 
provement made by the natives in military knowledge, through their connection with 
the French, whose abilities were exercised to the utmost in exasperating the chiefs 
against the English, and in forming their subjects into hardy and disciplined soldiers, 
with the view of thereby overthrowing our dominion in the East." 

On the present occasion the effect of French instruction was fully exhibited, for 
the Mahratta army displayed all the characteristics of European arrangement and 
discipline. Considering, therefore, the enemy's advantages in point of training and 
position, their superiority in number compared with the British actually engaged, and 
the fatigue the British troops had endured previous to the battle, the victory was 
indeed a glorious one. 

" The cavalry, after marching forty-two miles in less than twenty-four hours, were 
hotly engaged with the whole force of the enemy from sunrise till near sunset ; and 
of so pressing a nature was this trying service that the horses were actually without 
food or water for the space of twenty hours. On coming up with the enemy, they 
were called into immediate exercise, and continued it, with little cessation, under very 
painful disadvantages, till the arrival of the infantry, who also had undergone extra- 
ordinary fatigue and hardship, in forced marches of sixty-five miles in forty-eight 

During the day the Commander-m-Chief had two horses killed under him, and 
the shot showered around him continually with the utmost fury. In the morning 
His Excellency led the cavalry to the onset, and in the afternoon he advanced at the 
head of the 76th Regiment, with whom he conducted all the attacks that were made 
on the enemy's line and on their reserve posted in and about the fortified village of 

" But among the trials which exercised the fortitude of Lord Lake on that day, the 
most distressing was the accident that befel his gallant son, Major Lake, of the 94th 
Regiment, who attended his father in the capacity of aide-de-camp and military 
secretary throughout the whole campaign. In that part of the battle, of which an 
account has already been detailed, while the Commander-in-Chief was leading on his 
troops against the enemy, his horse fell under him, after being pierced by several 
shot, upon which his son instantly dismounted, and urged his father to accept the 
horse which he rode. This was at first refused, but after some entreaty, the General 
was prevailed upon to comply, when, just as the Major had mounted another horse 
belonging to one of the troopers, he received a severe wound from a cannon shot in 

( 152 ) 

the presence of his father. Parental affection was suspended for a while by the sense 
of public duty, and the General proceeded with unrelaxed vigour in the prosecution of 
the great object that was paramount to all others ; after accomplishing which, and 
remaining master of the field, he bad the consolation to find that his brave and 
affectionate son, though severely wounded, was likely to do well, and prove an orna- 
ment to his country." He recovered, but was killed on the 17th August 1808, at the 
storming of the heights of Roleia, in Portugal. 

" The setting sun, after this busy and sanguinary day, presented a spectacle to the 
beholder calculated to agitate his mind with a variety of emotions ; for while he 
could not but feel grateful at the result of the conflict, and exult in the laurels which 
rewarded the victors, his sympathy was awakened in contemplating the extensive 
plain covered with the bodies of the dead, and hearing on all sides the groans of the 
wounded and the dying. This terrific picture was heightened by successive explosions 
of powder magazines and tumbrils of ammunition, which shook the atmosphere and 
obscured the horizon with tremendous clouds of sulphurous smoke. If anything could 
add to such a scene of woe, it was the approach of a murky night, indicating a hurri- 
cane, that came on with furious rapidity, till it spread an indescribable degree of 
horror over the blood-stained field. 

"On the arrival of the camp equipage, which was not till late in the evening, the 
victorious troops pitched their tents near the rivulet between the village of Laswaree 
and that of Impurah or Singrah. A battalion of infantry took charge of the 
prisoners who were collected together at the village of Sagepoorah, lying about midway 
between the British camp and the ill-fated village of Mohaulpoor, which, from its 
situation in the midst of the fury of the battle, was now reduced to ashes. Shortly 
afterwards, the Commander-in-Chief liberated all the prisoners, with the exception of the 
principal officers, amounting to forty-eight, whom he thought it prudent still to retain." 

In Brigade Orders, Colonel Macan, commanding 3d Cavalry Brigade, requested 
Mr. Lyss and Mr. Newvan, surgeons of the 29th Dragoons, to accept his best thanks 
for their humane and successful exertions in bringing off the wounded, though with the 
greatest personal risk to themselves, and in affording the natives, as well as the Euro- 
peans, every assistance in their power. 

The total loss in the battle was as follows : 

Killed. Wounded. 

Europeans 95 311 

Natives 77 341 

Horses Killed, wounded, and missing, 553. 

His Majesty's 76th Foot lost more than twice as many as any other corps both in 
killed and wounded 13 officers were killed and 29 wounded, of whom two died of their 
wounds. In officers the 29th Light Dragoons suffered most. Those of highest rank 
who fell were Major-General Ware, Colonel Vandeleur of the 8th Light Dragoons, and 
Major Griffith of the 29th Light Dragoons, and Major Campbell, Deputy-Quarter-Master 
General. Seventy-one pieces of ordnance were captured, of which seven were heavy 
brass guns, and two were heavy iron ones. The iron guns were of European manu- 
facture, the brass were cast in India one Dutch six-pounder excepted. The dimen- 
sions were in general those of the French. Large quantities of stores of all kinds 
were also taken. 

On the 8th of November the army left the blood-stained fields of Laswaree, where 
the air, from the number of dead carcases of men and beasts, had become highly offen- 

( 153 ) 

give. After several days of easy marches, proceeding very leisurely back the same 
way we came, we reached Paiashur, and the day following, the sick and wounded, with 
the captured guns, were sent off to Agra. " The army halted here a fortnight, during 
which time the fame of the recent victory having spread in every direction, the Rajas, 
both near and distant, from the Jumna to the Indus, rejoiced in the opportunity 
which it gave them of throwing off the Mahratta yoke, and eagerly sought the pro- 
tection of the British. 

" On the 14th a treaty of defensive alliance was concluded by the Commander-iu- 
Chief with the Raja of Macherree. His capital or stronghold is Ulwur; and from 
the local situation and resources of this chief, he had it in his power to impede or 
repel every incursion of the Mahrattas into the northern parts of Hindoostan." 

Sherpur, nine miles north-east of Ramgarh, is remarkable for the tomb of Lai Das, 
whose body is said to have come to Sherpur from the neighbouring 
Bhartpur village of Nagla, six months after death and burial. The 
tomb is a very substantial masonry building 100 feet long, with a high dome, and 
walls 5 feet thick. The interior is vaulted and low. The body of Lai Das lies in a 
crypt several feet below the surface. Many other members of Lai Das's family were 
interred at Sherpur. 

Nogdwan, a large village seven miles north-east of Ramgarh. It was held by 
Pathans, and was once very prosperous, and the columns lying about 
the village, and traces of old gardens, tell of better days. To the west 
of the village is a Dargah or Musalman shrine, said to be as old as the Ajinf* 

There is a small Raj fort here. In A.D. 1857, one hundred Raj bullocks 
were on their way via Nogawan to Firozpur, for the use of the British troops. 
Their escort was attacked just beyond Nogawan by the Meos and the Baniyas. The 
principal inhabitants of the village stoutly went to its assistance, with the fort-com- 
mandant. The Meos surrounded them, and the commandant, Man Singh by name, 
was killed, together with many of his men and of the Nogawan people. 

The stream of the Lindwah passes by Nogawan. 

Mubdrakpur, the most prosperous Khanzada village in the state. It is eight miles 
north-east of Ramgarh, has 224 houses, and 2577 inhabitants. The 
village is said to have been formerly Pathan, but for centuries Khan- 
zadas have held it. 

C/iardonda, eleven miles north of Ramgarb, a very small village on the border, but 
remarkable for a shrine to Devi, called Devi kd thdn, beside an agree- 
able spring in the border hills, which overhangs the village. This 
shrine was formerly much respected, and high officials even used to make handsome 
offerings. But the Meos, who now hold the village, have deprived the priest of the 
rent-free grant once bestowed by the village, the proprietors of which were formerly 
Gujars. The latter are now depressed cultivators, and complain bitterly. The pro- 
prietorship of Charaonda is vested nominally in twenty-two villages of Nai Meos and 
the Khanzada village of Marakpur, which, when the village was deserted, undertook 
to repopulate it. The Meos of this neighbourhood gave M. R. Bakhtawar Singh 
much trouble, and a fort, called Raguuathgarh, was built, and large villages were 
broken up into small ones. 

Nikach is in the valley lying between the double range of hills north-west of Ram- 
garh, from which it is nine miles distant. This valley has much rich 
land, and the Meos of it, like those round Ragunathgarh, were so 

( 154 ) 

troublesome that Bannf Singh drove the people away from their village under the hill, 
near which a fort called Bajrangarh was built, and compelled them to live in a number 
of small hamlets scattered about the village lands. The people are now desirous of 
returning to the old village site, which is on uncultivated ground, whereas the present 
habitations occupy some of the best arable land. 

Bdndoli, five miles north of Ramgarh. It is well known as one of Lai Das's places 
of residence, and the tombs of several members of his family are here. 
Within the limits of the adjoining village of Kho, high up on the hill, 
is a conspicuous masonry building, which marks one of Lai Das's places of retirement. 
There is a public tank at Bandoll, built forty years ago by one Hup Das. 

The Alwar Tahsil adjoins Ramgarh on the west. It is the only tahsil in 
the state which at no point touches foreign territory. It is situated in Mewat 
and is 496 square miles in extent, and has a population of 152,000. 

Its parganahs, villages, and castes, are as follows : 
























Bahadapur .... 









Malakhera .... 









Total . 










For revenue statistics see Appendix. 

The Ulwur Tahsil contains more than any other of the catchment areas of 
the two most important irrigating nallahs, the Ruparel and the Chuhar Sidh- 
It has been already explained that but a portion of the waters of the Ruparel 
and its tributaries may be detained in Ulwur. The most important part of 
what does remain is held back by the Sileserh bandh already mentioned. From 
Sileserh comes the water which, conveyed by a canal, beautifies the environs 
of the city. The stream which flows down the Sileserh valley to join the 
Ruparel produces some dahri land, and the Ruparel and Chuhar Sidh have 
a few acres of kdtli in most of the villages along their banks, and here and 
there some dahri, notably at Banjir Nagla. 

The extensive hills of the Ulwur Tahsil are to a large extent grass, game, and 
wood reserves, as detailed elsewhere (p. 103), 

Sixty feet is an extreme depth at which to find water (except in the hills), and 
20 to 35 feet is an ordinary depth. 

The date of the old papers in which the areas and jammas of many villages of. 
Ulwur are recorded does not appear, but they are said to be as old as Akbar. Those 
of the pargana of Mala Khera seem to have been prepared when it was held by M. 
R Siwai Jai Singh of Jaipur ; the date is s. 1782 (A.D. 1725). The Kanungoes have 
sanads from Jai Singh, dated s. 1777, and from Madho Singh, s. 1819. 

Some of the principal villages are entered as follows : 

( 155 ) 


Jam ma 

according to 

Jam ma 

Dhakptfrf .... 





Chomii .... 





Kutfna KuU'ui . . 





Mirzapur .... 










Berla (now in Lachmangarh) . 



Desula (Ulwur) . 





Jatiano .... 





Gigoli .... 










Pirthipura . 





Kalsada .... 



The city of Ulwur has an admirably central situation in the territory of which it 
is the chief town. 


Two modes of deriving its name are current. Some say that it 
was anciently called Alpur, or " strong city," some that by an allowable interchange 
of letters it is a form of the word " Arbal," the name of the main chain with which 
the Ulwur hills are connected. The city lies under the hill range, which just above 
it is crowned by the fort. 

It has already been narrated (p. 5 note) that local legends declare the Nikumpa 
Rajputs to have been the first occupants of Ulwur. They are said to have built 
the fort and the old town, remains of which last are to be seen within the hills under 
the fort. 

The cause of the fall of a ruling family is generally declared by local legends to 
have been some special act of gross oppression committed by the family. In the case 
of the Nikumpas, their ruin is attributed to their practice of human sacrifice. Daily 
they offered to Durga Devf some wretched man or woman belonging to the lower 
castes. A Bom widow's son was thus put to death, and the Domni, in revenge, told 
the Kbanzada chief of Kotila that he might easily seize the Ulwur Fort by attacking 
it when the Nikumpas were engaged in the worship of Devi, at which time they laid 
aside their arms. An attack was accordingly organised. A party of Khanzadas lay 
in wait under the fort ; the Domni, at the proper moment, gave the signal by throwing 
down a basket of ashes, and a successful assault was made. The spot where the ashes 
were thrown down is pointed out and called " Domni Danta." 

The first historical mention of Ulwur, which I have been able to find, is in 
Ferishta, who speaks of a Rajput of Ulwur contending with the Ajmlr Rajputs in 
H. 590 (A.D. 1195). 

The position of Ulwur as chief town in Mewat, the visit of Babar to it, and its 
subsequent history, has already been spoken of. 

The city of Ulwur is protected by a rampart and moat on all sides but where the 
rocky hill range crowned by the fort secures it from attack. There are five gates ; 
the main streets were well paved when Captain Impey was Political Agent. 

The population of the city and suburbs was 52,357, according to the census of 
April 10, 1872. The most numerous classes are Brahmins, Baniyas, and Chumars. 

In 1875-76, a plan of the city and suburbs on a large scale was made by a cum- 

( 156 ) 

potent surveyor ; every holding was numbered, and full statistics recorded and tabu- 
lated regarding ownership, the character of buildings and tenements, &c. The 
buildings of most note in the city are 

(1.) The Raja's palace, built chiefly by M. R. Banni Singh. It contains some 
fine courts, and a beautiful Darbar room ; the view from the roof of the latter, com- 
prising the fort, rocky hill-side, with temples under it, and the tanks and cenotaph 
of Bakhtawar Singh in the foreground, is considered almost unique, and very well 
worth a visit 

(2.) The cenotaph of M. R. Bakhtawar Singh, under the fort, has attracted much 
notice. It is a very fine specimen of the foliated or segmental arch style. Fergusson 
says of this cenotaph : " It makes up with its domes and pavilions as pleasing a group 
of its class as is to be found in India, of its age at least." 

The Temple of Jagdnath, in the chief market-place, is the most conspicuous of its 

The domed building inappropriately called the Tirpolia covers the crossing of the 
main streets. It is an old tomb, said to be that of one Tarang Sultan, brother of the 
Emperor Firoz Khan. It forms a sort of small covered bazaar. 

There are several old mosques bearing inscriptions. The most considerable is 
near the palace gate ; it is now used as a store-house. Its date, expressed in a sen- 
tence, is H. 969. 

The Mussulman shrine of most account inside the city is that of one Bhikan, said 
to have been killed in battle in the time of Kutbuldin Aibak. A street and mosque 
are named after him. 

A fine Court-Eouse, erected when Captain Impey was Political Agent at Ulwnr, 
stands in a handsome square at the entrance to the palace. Opposite it a suitable 
Revenue Office is under construction. 

The environs of the city have been mapped by the Topographical Survey Depart- 
ment, and its roads, gardens, and main buildings are well delineated. 

The gardens, especially the Banni Bilds, and ground watered by the canal from the 
Sileserh Lake, have been already spoken of, as also has the lake itself pp. 29, 91, 103. 

The largest buildings near and outside the city are 

(1.) The Fort, which stands just 1000 feet above the Tirpolia. It contains a 
palace and buildings erected chiefly by the first two Nanika chiefs of Ulwur. Its 
ramparts extend along the hill top, and across the valley for about two miles. It is 
said to have been built by Nikumpa Rajputs, and has undoubtedly been in the hands 
successively of Khanzadas, Mughals, Pathans, Jats, and Narukas. Probably its 
weakest point is that which lies over the old town of Ulwur. Below the fort are 
two outworks, both to protect the approach to the fort and to strengthen the city 
wall. One is known as the Chitanki; the other which is a work, no doubt, of a 
northern Governor Kdbul Khurd. 

(2.) The Banni Bilas palace, an elegant structure situated in the garden already 
mentioned. It was the work of M. R. Banni Singh. 

Near the public railway station, a private one for the use of the Maharaja and 
his household is being erected. It will be a very handsome building. 

Near the station on the Bhartpur road is a fine Musalraan tomb of A.D. 1547, 
known as Fatah Jhang's. Its dome is a conspicuous and ornamental object. Fatah 
Jhang was probably a Khanzada of note. At least his Hindoo extraction would 
appear to be indicated by the fact of the inscription, which is the only memorial 

( 157 ) 

inscription I have met with on an Ulwur monument, being in Ngari character. It 
gives the Hindi date as well as the year of the Hijira. It runs thus 

" Sambat 1604, san 955, Fatah Jang Khan, wafat pal tarlkh, 27 Mah Rabi ul 
awal Gumbaz niii dini tarikh 3 " 

The Residency, about a mile and a half from the city, a fine tank for the use of 
the city, and an excellent jail on the Tijara road, are the principal works in the 
suburbs constructed or begun during the minority of the late Chief, Sheodan Singh. 
The public gardens were laid out by M. R. Sheodan Singh, and since the establish- 
ment of the Council of Administration in A.D 1870, the High School, Dispensary, and 
Stables have been built, and Kotwdli and Tahsti are in process of erection. There 
are good metalled roads connecting the principal gardens, the Residency, and 
Sileserh Lake with the city. 

Several dams pr embankments have been built or thrown up to intercept the 
streams of the rains. One, known as Partap Singh's bandh, was expected to create a 
fine lake under the fort, but the water sinks, flows under ground, and reappears in 
the plains five or six miles east of Ulwur. 

Baliddurpur, eleven miles north-east of Ulwur, contains 930 houses. It formerly 
was the headquarters of a pargana. Saiyads are the principal in- 
habitants, but many of them are absent on service. The town is said 
to have been founded or revived by either the famous Bahadar Nahir Khanzada or 
his son. It was once an extensive and flourishing town with large bazaars, numerous 
fine houses with temples and tombs. One of the Jain temples has an inscription in 
Hindi, and a well, one in Arabic, but I have been unable to get either deciphered. A 
fort on a rock stands near the town. It is occupied by Raj Sepoys. 

Mdla Kliera, twelve miles south of Ulwur on the railroad, has 632 houses. It 
has a rampart round it, and a garrisoned fort. It gives its name to a 

Mdla Kliera. 

dleta, sixteen miles south of Ulwur, close to the hills. It has 416 houses, and 
2098 inhabitants. There are iron furnaces at this village. Here, too, 
M. R. Banni Singh built a large dam, but it forms no lake, and no 
very considerable extent of valuable land is produced by it. 

Akbarpur, nine miles south-west of Ulwur. It has 451 houses, and 1606 
inhabitants. It gave its name to a pargana. 

Dehra, seven miles north-west of Ulwur, the chief village of a 
pargana, but now insignificant. The pargana is the valley just north-west of Ulwur, 
through which the Chuhar Sidh flows, and in the hills of which the 
great Meo Fair already mentioned takes place. Charan Dass was 
born at Dehra. A residence of Lai Das is at Dhaoli Dub at the entrance to the 
valley, and the Chuhar Sidh shrine is in the hills overhanging it (p. 53). 

Bdnsur, the last of the middle Tahsils, adjoins the Ulwur Tahsil. Kot 
Putli, belonging to the Raja of Khetri and Jaipur territory 
bound it on the west. Part of it is in the Rdht, part in the 
Wai (vale?), a tract lying south of the Raht, and occupied chiefly by 
Shekhawat Thakurs (p. 123). It is 330 square miles in extent, and has a 
population of 67,000. 

( 158 ) 












Bansiir .... 
Narainpur . . 
Rampur . . . 
Hajipur . . . 
Garhi Mamor . . 
Barod .... 
Harsora . ' . 
Hamirpur . 

























Total . 

66 I 6 








These parganahs are old estates which were held by Shekhawat or Chauhan 
Thakurs. All the Thakurs are now ill off. 

For revenue statistics, see Appendix. 

The only flooded lands are those established below the Babaria bandh (an impor- 
tant work on which a large sum has been recently expended), and the deep hollows 
to the south of and near to the town Bansiir. 

Captain Abbott, who inspected and assessed the Tahsil, remarks regarding it : 

" The surface of the country is for the most part undulating raised bars of sand, 
alternating with loamy hollows. In these parts we have soils varying from a good 
loam to a very poor sandy soil. The Narainpur pargana, the greater part of the 
Garhi pargana, and the eastern portions of the Rampur, Hajipur, and Hamirpur 
parganahs have a hard and rich soil, generally capable of yielding two harvests. 

" The Sabf river forms the greater part of the boundary with the Jaipur state. It 
flows with considerable force for a few days in the year, and then dries up. It is 
chiefly regarded as a nuisance, owing to the uncertainty of the direction of its flow, 
and the persistent way in which it cuts into the village lands bordering on it, or 
deposits a layer of sand ; it, however, affords some compensation by leaving a good 
portion of its bed fit to bear rabi crops by the aid of peculiar manure. These 
areas are called ' KdtlV 

11 The next stream in size is the one which, rising south, flows past Narainpur, and 
further on joins the Sabi. Kdtli crops are grown in the bed of this stream, too, but 
in many parts ' Kullur ' interferes with good produce. Another stream, rising in 
the Rampur hills, and flowing north past Harsorn, affords considerable area for Kdtli 
cultivation. The only other streams of any importance are the collection of little 
ones which flow into the Babaria basin, where their waters are retained by the bandh 
there constructed." 

Much trouble has been caused by Rajputs of the Jaipur village of Rajnota, who, 
after cultivating land in the adjoining Ulwur villages, have refused to pay a fair rent, 
trusting to their power of giving trouble on the border to facilitate the evasion. Cap- 
tain Abbott, as Settlement officer, has fixed the rent of these lands so that in future 
there can be no question of the amount which should be paid. 

The depth of wells in Bansur, from the surface of the ground to the water level, 
is never more than 70 feet, and usually from 20 to 30. 

The mudzinas, or old pargana papers, bear dates, F. 1152 (i.e., A.D.1739), and H. 

( 159 ) 

972 (i.e., A.D. 1564). The following figures afford comparison between that period 
and the present : 

Total area, according to muazina of H. 1152, of six villages, comprising pargana 
of Hajipur (namely, Hajipur, Bhubserah, Hamirpur, Chind, Kishorpura, Bamanwas, 
Bhuriawas), 12,708 bighas. 

Total Jamma of do., Rs. 6485. 

Present area of do. according to Settlement survey, 8464 settlement bighas. 

Present Jamma of do., Us. 10,841. 

Total area of twelve villages, according to muazina of H. 972, comprising pargana 
of Rampur (namely, Mothiika, Fatahpur, Kaliannagar, Mandh, Mudli, Ghat, Balawas 
Basna, Mukandpur, Lohech, Toda), 24,000 bighas. 

Total Jamma of do., Rs. 19,403. 

Present area of do., according to Settlement survey, 26,365 bighas. 

Present Jamma of do., Rs. 11,890. 

Bdnsur is situated twenty miles north-west of Ulwur city, but more than thirty by 
any practicable road. It has 620 houses and 2930 inhabitants. There is 
a garrisoned fort on a rocky hill over against the town. A model 
tahsil office has been built here, the first of those which are everywhere to take the 
place of the old make-shift buildings. The neighbourhood of the town is remarkable 
for its fine bargat trees. 

The pagana of which Bansur is the chief village, was known as the " Bealisi," 
(or the forty-two villages), and was a Shekhawat Thakur's estate. There were three 
such estates. 

Narainpur is twelve miles south of Bdnsur. It has 1087 houses and 4460 inhabi- 
tants. Enough regarding its Shekbawat inhabitants has already been 
said (p. 123). The pargana, with that of Garhi Mamtir, is composed 
of the second of the three Shekhawat estates. The town is a very ancient place. See 
General Cunningham's "Ancient Geography of India." 

The parganahs of Narainpur and Garhi Mamiir forms the Wai or the main portion 
of it. 

Garhi Mdmur is eight miles south-east of Bansiir. It has 251 houses and 1076 
inhabitants. There is a little fort here which the Shekhawats took poses- 
sion of during the disturbances of 1870. The old estate which forms M<Lm<ir. 
the pargana of Garhi Mamiir was an off-shoot of Narainpur. 

Itdmpur is six miles south east of Bansiir. It has 1013 houses and 5289 inhabi- 
tants. This was the seat of a Chauhan family which held the village and 
others about it, which together now form the Rampur pargana. The 
old position of the family, whose representatives still live at Bansiir, but in very re- 
duced circumstances, has been considered in the settlement of the village. 

Ifarsora is eight miles north-east of Bansiir. It has 332 houses and 2750 in- 
habitants. It, with the villages about it, formed a Chauhan estate ; 
but the Chauhans were entirely deprived of the management of their 
villages, and are not now regarded as proprietors. 

Hamirpur is eight miles east of Bansur. Houses, 153. Population, 2357. The 

parganahs of Hamirpur and Hajipur formed the third Shekhawat 


ffdjipur, six miles east of Bansur. Houses, 404. Population, 
1876. " H&jipur> 

( 160 ) 

Tdlbirich is a very pretty spot at the head of the Riipparel valley, five miles east of 

Narainpur. It is famous for hot springs, which flow into bathing 

lch * tanks, and to which medicinal and other virtues are attributed. The 

water passes into a wood of tdl (pentaptera) trees, which are found scarcely anywhere 

else iu the state. Cenotaphs of Shekhawat Thakurs are situated, and afford shelter, 

near the tank. 


Katumbar is the most eastern of the four southern tahsils. It is partly in 

Katumbar Narukhand, partly in . It has Bhartpnr territory on 

Tahsii. three sides of it, and some Bhartpnr villages are isolated within 

its limits. Its area is 122 square miles, and its population about 39,000. 
The tahsil has 74 villages, of which 67 are fiscal and 14 revenue-free. 

Its parganahs and fiscal villages are as follows: 




















Part of old Lachmangarh 
















For revenue statistics, see Appendix. 

The crop rates of revenue prevalent are as follows 

Wheat (well) . . .50 

(denkli) ..28 
Barley (well) . . 40 

(denkli) . 2 

Cotton .... 2 8 
Jawar (unirrigated) . 1 2 

(dahrlland) ..20 
Indian Corn ... 18 
Gram .... 2 
Bajra .... 1 2 
Moth and Inferior Pulses 1 




1 8 

1 2 

About two-thirds of the soil is of inferior quality. The rest is good. The chief 
crops grown are in order of extent, bajra, moth, jawar, cotton, barley. 

The nallah from Lachmangarh flows into the Tahsil, but the water reaches the 
remoter villages irregularly. The Bhawar nallah in the south of the tahsil waters 

( 161 ) 

three villages, and the Ghossana nallah waters six villages. At one of these, Gala 
Kkera by name, there is a bandh. 

The water level in some wells of Katumbar is between 70 and 80 feet below the 
surface, but 30 feet is about the average. 

The old pargana papers bear date s. 1786 (A.D. 1729), the time of Siwai Jai Singh 
of Jaipur. 

The following are specimens of the old areas and Jammas : 

Area, according to old papers of pargana Sonkhar, comprising nine villages, 
viz., Sonkhar, Sonkhrl, Doroli, Salwari, Kherli, Natoj, Kala Khera, Ghilauta, 
Daroda, 39,242 bighas. 

Old Jamma of do., Rs. 20,275. 

Area according to survey, 27,259 bighas. 

Jamma now assessed, Us. 30,455. 

The Marhattas took the place of Jaipur as possessors of Katumbar, and held the 
pargana, or the greater part of it, till s. 1860 (A.D. 1803). In that year the Mar- 
hatta officials murdered some respectable persons of the neighbourhood, one of whom 
was a Brahmin, and the Kanungoes and others complained to M. R. Bakhtawar Singh 
of Ulwur, who ousted the Marhattas. But a fresh force turned out the Ulwur troops, 
and it was this army which Lord Lake marched against and destroyed at Laswarree. 

The town of Katumbar is thirty-eight miles south-east of Ulwur. It has 828 
houses and 3145 inhabitants. It is an ancient place, but now contains 
no wealth ; and except as the headquarters of the tahsil, is of little 

Sonkar, six miles south-west of Katumbar. It has 374 houses and 1618 inhabi- 
tants. It is the chief village of the pargana known in the time of 
the emperors as Sonkar Sonkri 

Sonkar was, seven hundred years ago, founded by Chauhans from Sonkri, who had 
originally, it is said, come from Nimrana. According to tradition, they had taken 
possession of Tasai, in Katumbar, when the murder of a Brahmin by the Minds of 
Sodoli caused them to attack Sodoli as avengers. Sodoli was destroyed, and on the 
site Sonkri was built. 

For a long time previous to s. 1834 Jaipur is said to have held the pargana. 
From s. 1834 to s. 1840 the Mughals held all or a portion of it, and their houses are 
pointed out in Sonkri. In s. 1840 the Marhattas devastated the pargana, and 
occupied it subsequently till S. 1859. In s. 1860 the Bhartpur Jats held the par- 
gana till after the Rabi harvest. Since then it has been a part of Ulwur. 

Samiichi, eleven miles south of Katumbar. It contains 420 houses and 2039 

inhabitants. There is a garrisoned fort here, and the village contains 

, , , , f , , Samfichf. 

much good da/in land. 

Lachmangarh is the southern tnhsil next to Katurabar. It is in Nai ukhand, 
and touches Bhartpur territory, but its southern border chiefly Lachmangarh 
lies along Jaipur. Tahsil. 

Some isolated Jaipur villages are within its border, and villages of Lach- 
inangurh lie detached in Jaipur. The area of the tahsil is 221 square miles, 
and its population 70,000. 

The tahsil consists of but one pargana. Its villages and the castes of the 
proprietors are as follows: 

( 162 ) 

























For revenue statistics, see Appendix. 

The soil of the Lachmangarh Tahsil is for the most part light where unaffected by floods. 
The chief crops grown are, in order of extent, bajra, moth, jawar, barley, cotton, gram. 

The principal irrigating nnllah flows from the bandh at Lachmangarh, and from 
Ghat, on the Rupparel, a canal brings water to certain villages after the rains. 

The deptli of wells to the water level is usually from 15 to 35 feet, but a depth of 
70 feet is to be met with in the tahsil. 

The old name of Lachmangarh was Taur. Partap Singh got possession of the 
place from Sariip Singh, and enlarged the fort and renamed it Lachmangarh. The 
fort subsequently endured a seige laid by Najaf Khan (p. 17). 

The town of Lachmangarh is twenty-three miles south-east of Ulwur. It has 996 
houses, and according to the census, 3779 inhabitants. 

The fort contains good accommodation for the Chief when he visits the town. 

A long bandh detains the waters of a nallah from the south-west. There are fine 
trees on and below this bandh near the town, and early in February, when the yellow 
blossom of the sarson covers the expanse behind it, it is a most tempting place to 
linger on. The bandh requires much attention, for being almost entirely earthen, it 
is very liable to get out of repair. 

Maujpur, three miles west of Lachmangarh. It has 669 houses, and, according to 
census, 3519 inhabitants. It has a bazaar, and much of its area is 
dahrl land. A good road has been constructed between Lachmangarh 
and the railway station at Mdla Khera, and Maujpur stands on it. The village is 
also on the line of communication between Lachmangarh and Rajgarh. 

Rdjgarli is the next of the southern tahsis. It, too, is partly in Naru- 
khand, but its western portion was the Bargujar and Rajawat 
country. Jaipur lies along its southern border. Its area is 
373 square miles, and population about 98,000. It has 108 fiscal and 99 
revenue-free villages. The fiscal villages with the parganas are as follows : 


























Renl .... 
















Rajgarh .... 






Rajpur .... 






Tehla .... 







Lachmangarh . 





Mala Khera . 

















( 163 ) 

The soil of the Rajgarh Tahsil is nearly all good. The chief crops grown are, in 
order of extent, barley, moth, bajra, cotton, jawar. 

Water flowing from the hills surrounding Rajgarh is collected in the Bhdgola bandh 
just south of Rajgarh, the lands of which are benefited as are also those of village 
Got adjoining. From the bandh at Macheri, a nallah in the rains flows east, and with 
additions reaches Lachraangarh. It has little dahri in Rajgarh villages. At Reni a 
new landh forms a good deal of dahri. 

In Rajpiira the Deoll bandh supplies water for the irrigation of five villages below 
it, and the villages round the Deoll lake obtain rich flooded land as the water flows 
away, but much of it too late in the season to be very valuable. 

In the Tehla pargana there are water-courses from all directions, but they 
do not spread their floods, and form very little dahri. They, however, keep up 
the well-water level. Village Talao has a tank, under which lies some of the 
richest irrigated land in the state, and its revenue, though high, is paid without 

At Kho, in the same pargana, a new bandh has been constructed lately, which 
is especially valuable in raising the well-water level. 

The iron and copper mines of the tahsil have been spoken of elsewhere. 

The water-level in wells is occasionally 75 feet or thereabouts below the surface, 
but it is usually from 10 feet to 35 feet. 

It has been already related how the present ruling family of Ulwur was originally 
established at Rajgarh, which, with Macheri and half Rajpiira, formed 
the estate with which Partap Singh began the career which he ended 
as Chief of Ulwur. 

The old town of Rajgarh whether it really bore that name or not I am not sure 
was situated about half-a-mile eastward of the present town, and some vestiges of it 
are still to be seen. This old town is said to have been founded by Raja Bagh Singh 
Bargujar in S. 202, and the Bhagola bandh near the town is attributed to the same 

The new town of Rajgarh is said to have sprung up under the shadow of the fort 
erected by Partap Singh about 100 years ago (p. 16). Enclosed within the town 
walls, and forming part of the present town, are two villages, Kurnibas and Muham- 
madpur. The population, according to the census, was 12,070. 

The wall and ditch round the town were constructed by M. R. Banni 

In s. 1839 (A.D. 1782) the Jaipur chief attacked Rajgarb, but this and other 
incidents connected with Rajgarh have been already dwelt on. There are several 
fine buildings at Rajgarh, especially the palace in the fort, the frescoes in which are 
curious. Temples, too, are worthy of note, and there is a wealthy monastery of 
Dadupanthis already spoken of. The resident monks (sadhs) do not lead very austere 
lives, but they receive hospitably mendicant brethren who lead harder lives. The 
gardens about Rajgarh are extensive. One or two belonging to the Raj have nine 

Thdna, a village two miles north-west of Rajgarh is remarkable as being the seat 
of the family which has supplied three chiefs to Ulwur. Indeed, 
the residences of nearly all the principal Nanika Thakurs are in the 
Lachmangarh and Rajgarh Tahsil s. 

( 164 ) 

Mdcheri is three miles north-east of Rajgarh. It has 593 houses, and 2352 

inhabitants. . It was part of Partap Singh's original estate. The path 

between it and .Raj garb is over desolate hills, and was formerly very 

unsafe. A tank containing fish is met with on or near this path. Macheri and 

Deoti, where the lake is, seem to have been the chief towns of the district in Akbar's 


Rdjpura, the third village of the original estate. It is eight miles south-west of 
Rajgarh, and contains 481 houses and 2294 inhabitants. The fort 
here was also built by Partap Singh, and successfully resisted the 
Jaipur troops. There is a long bandh here, which is not very advantageous. 

Reni, eight miles south-east of Rajgarh, contains 656 houses and 
3281 inhabitants. It has a new bandh. 

Tahla, fourteen miles west of Rajgarh in a straight line, but eighteen by cart-road 
through the Deoti pass. It contains 418 houses and 1846 inhabitants. 
It is situated in an almost circular valley, and a fort stands on a rock 
above it. 

The villages of the Tahla pargana were part of a Bargiijar state formerly. They 
were ousted through the enmity of the Jaipur chief and the hostility of the Dehli 
emperor, to whom they had refused to give a daughter in marriage. 

The present Tahla fort is said to have been built by Siwai Jai Singh, chief of 
Jaipur, to employ the starving during a famine in s. 1812. The Raja-wats of Bhan- 
garh then held Tahla in succession to the Bargiijars. This fort was taken by Partap 
Singh in s. 1826, but was recovered two years after by Mahant Gumranand, no doubt 
a Naga leader in the service of Jaipur. Bhawani Singh Jadu, an officer of Partap 
Singh's, retook it in s. 1835-36. 

The Brahmin proprietors of Tahla say they were the Parohits of the Bargujar 
ruling family. 

Taldo, iu the Tahla pargana, is ten miles west of Rajgarh, and fourteen by cart- 
T ., road. It has 1938 inhabitants. Its tank irrigates some very rich land, 

and water-fowl abound in it. 

On the tank are the remains of an ancient temple with a half-effaced inscription. 
There is a curious legend attached to this tank. It is said that at one time the water 
of the tank turned blood red, and the Bargujar proprietor was warned by the Pundits 
that it would remain so until he buried his son and daughter-in-law beneath it. 
The advice was taken, the victims were placed in their living tomb with six months 
provisions, and a monument raised to their memory. 

Kho Dariba, two adjacent villages in the Tahla pargana. Kho has 2194 in- 
habitants, and a fine and valuable dam on which a large sum of money 
has been recently expended. Dariba is well known for its copper-mine 
described elsewhere. 

Nilkanth, in the hills above Tahla. It is one of the most interesting places 

archseologically in the State. Once on the plateau of these hills there 

was a considerable town, adorned with temples and statuary. Its old 

name is Rajor or Rajorgarh. It was the old capital of the Bargujar tribe, of Rajputs, 

when they ruled in this region. Tod speaks of it as a place ot great antiquity (Tod's 

" Rajisthan," vol. ii. pp. 336, 338). The most remarkable remains are a colossal 

human figure cut out of the rock, similar to some of those on the fort-rock at Gwalior 

a comparatively large pyramidal domed temple, richly decorated with figures, which here 


( 165 ) 

and in porches seem deserving of study ; columns there are beautifully sculptured in the 
style of columns at Baroli in. Mewar,* though on a much smaller scale, and of the 
temple of Amarnath, not far from Bombay, diagrams of which were published in the 
" Indian Antiquary." Indeed, the temples at all three places are both in honour of 
the same deity Shiv, and, as inscriptions show, erections of the same century, or 
within a few years of the same century, of the Hindu era namely, the tenth. The 
date s. 1010 is clearly legible on a figure of Ganesh in the large temple of Nilkanth. 
The place would be worth a visit from a competent archaeologist. 

Kdnkwdri, a village with a very small population but a large area, is remarkable for 
its fort, which is the least accessible of any in Ulwur. It stands on a 
hill situated on the same plateau as Nilkanth, and nearly surrounded 
by higher hills, the nearest of which are about 1500 yards distant. 

This plateau is approached either by a narrow pass or by a circuitous and steep 
road, barely passable for carts. 

The outer walls of this fort are about 8 feet thick, their length about 100 feet by 
300 feet. In the keep of the fort is a small palace built by Partap Singh, who is said 
to have come from Kankwari to take possession of the fort of Ulwur. The keep 
has thin walls. The fort of Kaukwari is said to have been built by Siwai Jai Singh 
the same year as the Tahla fort. It, too, was a famine work, and it is said that the 
common people laboured by day, and the respectables, unaccustomed to manual 
labour, at night. There is a temple of Mahadeo at the foot of a little hill, on 
which stands a square outwork (Chauburja), which temple is said to be 1700 years 

TMna GhazL 

Thdna Glidzi is the fourth southern tahsil. It adjoins Eajgarh, and has 
Jaipur territory on its south and west. , The whole of it, or 
nearly the whole, was formerly in the hands of the Eajawats. 
The western part of the tahsil is called Nehera. The area of the tahsil is 
287 square miles, and the population, 55,000. It has 23 revenue-free and 
121 fiscal villages. The latter, with the parganas to which they belong, are 
shown below. 















Baldeogarh .... 
Partapgarh . , . . 
Thana Ghazl .... 

















Total . 









For revenue statistics, see Appendix. 

* Tod, page 646 of vol. ii. (2d ed.) 

( ICG ) 

The soil of this tahsfl is for the most part super-excellent, not more than ten per 
cent, of it is bad or inferior. 

The principal crops grown are Indian corn, barley, and moth. 

The Ajabgarh and Partapgarh nallahs are the two principal streams. Both of 
these usually run all the year round. They are chiefly valuable for raising the water 
level in wells. 

BandJis are needed at several places. At Piplai the people would gladly pay a 
good percentage on the cost of one. At Gola ka bas, and a village south of it, bandhs 
were desired. 

Much land is not entered in the statement as dahri. The peculiarity of the 
pargana is the excellence of its well land. It has an extraordinary amount of 
dofasli (or land yielding two crops a year), and this dofasli bears an astonishingly 
high rent rate. 

Water in wells is rarely as much as 30 feet below the surface, and in Ajabgarh 
not 15 feet. 

The waste land of this pargana is also very extensive. Its distance from Ulwur 
renders its utilisation for Darbar purposes difficult; consequently the people have the use 
of the Raj runds at a nominal rental, and an unusual number of cattle is kept, so that 
manure is plentiful. The grazing land besides being so extensive is also very good. 

The hills are generally remarkable for their extensive tableland ; on which the 
grass is very good. The local term for the tableland is mdla, and the valleys between 
are called chhind. 

The old crop revenue rates are marvellously high in this tahsfl. The bigha used 
was not the common Raj bigha generally used elsewhere, so the rates shown below are 
calculated for the Settlement bigha which is '625 of an acre. 

Tbdna GMzi. Ajabgarh. 

Rs. An. Pies. Rs. An. Pies. 

Sugarcane . . . . 15 ... 23 12 

Indian corn .... 6 ... 6 13 

Cotton and til . . . . 700 ... 840 

Jawar, bajra (irrigated) . . 1120 ... 280 

(unirrigated) . . 120 

Moth (irrigated) . . . 100 ... 120 

(unirrigated) ... 12 ... 

Tobacco, wheat . . . 780 ... 800 

Barley 5 12 ... 5 12 

Gram ..... 2 8 ... 280 


Indian corn followed by wheat or 

tobacco . . 13 8 ... 14 5 
by barley . . 11 12 ... 12 9 
Unirrigated jawar or bajra followed 

by irrigated barley . . 780 

Unirrigated jawar or bajra fol- 
lowed by well wheat . . 940 
Cotton followed wheat or tobacco 880 
Cotton followed by gram . . 980 
Indian corn followed by opium . 12 8 

( 167 ) 

Madho Singh, son of Bhagwan Das, chief of Amer, is said to have received in grant 
Bhangarh with the territory about it, including the whole of the present Tahsil of 
Thana Ghazi. 

The history of the family will be most easily shown in the following form : 

BHAGWAN DA'S, Chief of Jaipur. 

MiCn Singh Mddho Singh 

(Ak bar's famous General). (who obtained Bhangarh). 

S6ja"n Singh Chatur Singh 

(descendants hold villages, (of BhiLngarh). 

Agar and Ndngal of 

Thdna Ghdzi). 

I I I 

Ajab Singh Umed Singh Bhim Singh 

(succeeded his father at (descendants hold Suratgarh, (descendants have V. Burja). 
Bhdngarh, and founded Thdna Gha^i). 

Ajabgarh, in the valley, six 
miles north of it). 

Hari Singh Kdbill Singh 

(descendants at Piplai, (Had Ajabgarh and Bhangarh}. 

Thdna Ghdzi). | 

Jeswant Singh (succeeded 

father). Abandoned Bhslngarh, 

and resided at Ajabgarh. 

Chajti Singh. Nathti Singh. Dakhani Singh. Daulat Singh. 

The last three obtained Bhangarh from Chajii Singh by becoming Musalmans, 
and so getting imperial help. They were driven out by Siwai Jai Singh, chief of 
Jaipur, and Jeswant Singh of Ajabgarh, who was in alliance with his cousins, was 
killed. After this Bhangarh diminished in population and importance, and when the 
famine of s. 1840 fell on the land the town was abandoned, and has remained a ruin 
ever since. 

Partap Singh's conquest of the Rajawat territory has been already spoken of. The 
parganas of Ajabgarh and Baldeogarh were formed into a Tahsil with the villages 
near Partap Singh's new fort of Partapgarh. This Tahsil was annexed to Thana 
Ghazi in A.D. 1870. 

Bhdngarh situated twenty miles south of Thana Ghazi, the headquarters of the 
Tahsil, was the capital of this part of the country. It is now in ruins, 
and it is melancholy to pass up its main street deserted and roofless as 
the old houses and shops are. The extent of the ruins indicate that the town was as 
large as the present city of Ulwur. Like the latter. Bhangarh is situated under a hill, 
on the lower slope of which was the Raja's palace. A clear stream falls into a pool 
overhung by trees lying under the palace, and hard by are two temples known as Ha- 
numanji's and Mahadeoji's. These temples have much beauty and elegance, and 
ought to be preserved from decay by the State. The Jhirri marble, much of which was 
used on them, has been a good deal defaced by whitewash. Their style is more that 
usually adopted for cenotaphs than common in temples. Outside the old city of 
Bhangarh is a fine Musalman domed tomb of marble, presumably to the memory of 
one of those sons of Hari Singh who turned Musalman. 

( 168 ) 

Ajabgarh, fourteen miles south of Thdna Ghazf. It has 2071 inhabitants. The 
town was founded it is said by Ajab Singh Rajawat (already mentioned) 
s. 1692. The fort, too, is attributed to Ajab Singh. Jeswant Singh 
grandson of Ajab Singh, being on bad terms with his brethren, who possessed Bhan- 
garh, built a wall across the valley in which both towns are situate. This valley in 
the neighbourhood of Ajabgarh is very pretty. The range of hills on each side is 
picturesque, and they are well wooded on their lower slopes. The valley itself is the 
richest tract in the state ; a stream runs down it ; water is close to the surface. Palm 
and other trees are numerous on the grassy banks of the stream, and gardens are to 
be met with. Two temples, one of Saraogls the other of Jagannath, are famous 

A narrow pass to the west, down which trickles a rill, leads to a lakelet formed by 
a dam, and called Som Sagar. A perfectly legible inscription in Persian, on a stone, 
records that the dam was built 8. 1654, H. 1038, in the time of Jalaludln Akbbar 
and Madho Singh (son of the Jaipur chief) Dfwan. It states that in the Som Sagar 
there are living things, and it adjures all Hindus and Musalmans by Rdm and Rahlm 
not to disturb them. 

The town of Ajabgarh and its dependent villages were up to the Three Year Settle- 
ment of Captain Impey held as one mahdl or estate. At that Settlement the villages 
were separately contracted for. 

It is probable that a good road from Narainpur and TLana Ghazl, running south 
through the Ajabgarh valley, to a station on the Jaipur and Agra line, would prove 
a valuable railway feeder. 

Baldeogarh. This pargana lies east of Bhangarh. The town has 1662 inhabi- 
tants, and is 20 miles from Thana Ghazl. It formerly was known as 
Kaprlwala. About s. 1830 M. R. Partap Singh founded a fort and 
called it Baldeogarh, after the temple of Baldeo. The fort was completed by Bakh- 
tawar Singh. 

About four miles west of Baldeogarh, in a nook of the hills, are hot springs with 
reputed medicinal power. A fair to Narain is held here. Below them is a garden 
in which the " Keori," or screw pine, is grown ; and their waters, copious for a spring 
of the kind, irrigate some lands of more than one village. 

The quarries of Baldeogarh are spoken of elsewhere. 

Partdpgarh. This pargana forms the south-west corner of the state. The town 
is 13 miles from Thana Ghazl, and has 1480 inhabitants. A rough 
road over a rougher pass connects it with Ajabgarh. Jhirri, famous 
for its quarries of marble, described elsewhere, lies on this road. 

M. R. Partap Singh is said to have founded the town in s. 1832. It has well-to-do 
merchants and money-lenders, and in the month of Baisakh (spring) fairs to Devi and 
Narsingbji are held. The town lies under a lofty conical hill with a fort on the top. 
The hill is covered with dauk, nlna, sala, and plpal trees. 

Thdna Ghdzi, the headquarters of the tahsil, is 26 miles south-west of Ulwur. 
It has 644 houses and 2968 inhabitants. The road connecting it with 
Ulwur is through the valley of the Riipparel, and needs the improve- 
ment it is to receive. 

The town of Mominabad formerly lay a mile and a half east of the site of the 
present town. There the imperial Amil was, it is said, murdered by a Gujar, whose 
daughter he wished to debauch. Ghazl Khan, another official, thereupon destroyed 

( 169 ) 

Mominabad and, s. 1518, founded the present town of Thana Ghazf. Ghazi Khan 
and his descendants remained, it is said, as Amils until s. 1616, when the town came 
into the possession of the Raja of Bhangarh. In s. 1825 Birj Singh Rajawat, a 
relation of the Bhangarh Raja, built a fortlet, which has grown into the present 
masonry fort overhanging the town. 

Partdp Singh obtained Thana Ghazi about s. 1832. 



ARTICLES of a TREATY agreed upon between His Excellency GENERAL GERARD LAKE, 
Commauder-in-Chief of the British Forces in India, in virtue of authority 
granted for that purpose by His Excellency the Most Noble the MARQUIS 


A permanent friendship is established between 'the Honourable the English East 
Indian Company and Maharao Raja Sewaee Bakhtawar Singh Bahader, and 
between their heirs and successors. 


The friends and enemies of the Honourable Company shall be considered the 
friends and enemies of the Maharao Raja, and the friends and enemies of Maharao 
Raja shall be the friends and enemies of the Honourable Company. 


The Honourable Company shall not interfere with the country of Maharao Raja, 
nor shall demand any tribute from him. 


In the event of any enemy evincing a disposition to attack the countries now in the 
possession of the Honourable Company, or of their allies in Hindustan, Maharao 
Raja agrees to send the whole of his force to their assistance, and to exert himself 
to the utmost of his power to repel the enemy, and to omit no opportunity of proving 
his friendship and attachment. 


As, from the friendship established by the second article of the present treaty, the 
Honourable Company become guarantee to Maharao Raja for the security of his 
country against external enemies, Maharao Raja hereby agrees, that if any misunder- 
standing should arise between him and the Circar of any chieftain, Maharao Raja 
will, in the first instance, submit the cause of dispute to the Company's Government, 
that the Government may endeavour to settle it amicably. If, from the obstinacy of 
the opposite party, no amicable terms can be settled, then Maharao Raja may 

( 172 ) 

demand aid from the Company's Government. In the event above stated in this 
article, it will be granted, and Maharao Raja agrees to take upon himself the charge 
of the expense of such aid at the same rate as has been settled with the other chief- 
tains of Hindustan. 

The above treaty, comprised in five articles, has been duly exchanged under the 
seal and signature of His Excellency General Gerard Lake, and under the seal and 
signature of Maharao Raja Bakhtawar Singh Bahader, at Puhessur, on the 14th day 
of November 1803, of the Christian era, agreeing with the 26th of Rujib, 1218 
Hegira, and the 15th of Aghun, 1860 Sambat. When a treaty containing the above 
five articles shall be delivered to Maharao Raja, under the seal and signature of His 
Excellency the Most Noble the Marquis Wellesley, Governor-General, &c., the present 
treaty, under the seal and signature of His Excellency General Lake, shall be 

The Raja's Seal. 

Company's Seal. 

(Signed) G. LAKE. 

(Signed) WELLESLEY. 

This treaty was ratified by the Governor-General in Council the 19th December 1803. 


To all Mootsaddies, present and future, as well as to Amils, Choudhrees, Kanoon- 
goes, Zamindars, and Cultivators of Parganas, Ismaeelpooro, and Moodawar, with the 
Talookas of Darharpore, Rutaee, Nimrana, Mandan, Ghelote, Beejwar, Suraie, Dadree, 
Loharoo, Boodwanah, and Bhoodchalnahur, under the Soobah of Shahjehanabad : 
Let it be known that between the Honourable the East Indian Company of England 
and Maharao Raja Sewaee Bakhtawar Singh the friendship which existed has been 
strengthened ; therefore, with a view of proving and making this fact public to every 
one, General Lord Lake directs that the above-mentioned districts be made over to the 
Maharao Raja for his expenses, subject to the concurrence of the Most Noble the 
Governor-General, Lord Wellesley. 

On the permission of the Governor-General being received, another Sanad will be 
given in place of the present one, which will be recalled. 

Until another Sanad arrives, this one will remain in possession of the Maharao 

Parganas Ismaeelpore and Moodawar, with the Talookas of Darbarpore, Rutaee, 
Nimrana, Mandan, Beejwar, and Ghelote and Suraie, Dadree and Laharoo, Bood- 
wanah and Bhoodchalnahur. 

Dated 28th November A.D. 1803, corresponding with the 12th of Shaban, 1218 
Hijree, or Aghun Sood Pooranmassee, Sambat, 1860. (Signed) G. LAKE. 


I, Aihmad Buksh Khan, having full powers from Maharao Raja Sewaee Bakh- 
tawar Singh, engage, on behalf of myself and the Maharao Raja aforesaid, that one 

( 173 ) 

lakh of rupees shall be paid to the British Government on account of the grant of the 
fort of Kishengarb, together with its dependencies and the stores contained in the 
fort and the parganas of Tijara, Tapokra, and Katumbar, received in exchange 
of Dadree, Budwanor, and Bhawna Kerjah, shall be given under the seal and signa- 
ture of the Maharao Raja, also that the "Bund" of the Laswaree Naddi shall always 
be open, inasmuch as is necessary for the benefit of the country of the Bhartpore 
Raja. The Maharao Raja will strictly adhere to this agreement. 

Whenever an engagement ratified by the Maharao Raja shall be received, this 
paper shall be returned. 

This paper is to be considered as a formal engagement. 21st Rijile 1220 Hijree. 
Seal of Aihmad 

Baksh Khan. (A true translation.) 

Signed C. T. METCALFE, 

OF MACHERRY, dated IGth July 1811. 

Whereas the strictest unity of interests is firmly established between the British 
Government and Maharao Raja Sewaee Bakhtawar Singh, and whereas it is expedient 
that this should be universally known and understood, the Maharao Raja hereby en- 
gages, for himself and his heirs and successors, that he will never enter into any en- 
gagements or negotiations whatever with any state or chief without the knowledge or 
consent of the British Government ; with this view the present engagement is written 
on the part of Maharao Raja Sewaee Bakhtawar Singh this 16th day of July 1811 of 
the Christian era, corresponding with the 24th of Jamadool sanee 1246 Hijera, it 
being understood that the treaty formerly concluded between the two states is by no 
means annulled by the present engagement, but, on the contrary, is hereby confirmed 
and strengthened. 

Signature of 

Maharao Raja 




Whereas certain districts, Tijara, Tapokra, Butaee, Moondawar, &c., were granted 
to the late Rao Raja Bakhtawar Singh by the British Government through the medi- 
ation of General Lord Lake, I cede an equivalent for those districts, half in territory 
and half in money, to my dear brother Raja Balwant Singh and his heirs in per- 
petuity, according to the desire of the British Government. The said Raja shall be 
absolute master of the ceded territory and pecuniary stipend. If he or any of his de- 
scendants die childless, and no heirs of his body remain, then the territory settled 
shall revert to the principality of Ulwur. If the said Raja or any of his descendants 
adopt any son other than the issue of his own loins, the territory and pecuniary 
stipend shall not go to the adopted child. The territory to be settled on the Raja 
shall be compact and adjoining to the frontier of the British domains, and shall be 

( 174 ) 

under the protection of the British Government. Brotherly relation shall continue 
between me and the said Raja. The British Government shall be guarantee of this 
engagement both for me and for the said Raja. 

Magh Soodi Jeth Sambat 1822, Hth Rajab 1241, Hegira, 21st February 1826. 

(A true translation.) 

Signed C. T. METCALFE, 



Confirmed by the Governor-General in Council on 14th April 1826. 

SHEODAN SINGH MAHARAO, Raja of Ulwur, his heirs and successors, executed 
on the one part by Colonel WILLIAM FREDERICK EDEN, Agent to the Governor- 
General for the States of Rajpootana, in virtue of the full powers vested in him 
by His Excellency the Right Honourable Sir JOHN LAIRD MAIR LAWRENCE, 
Baronet, G.C.B., and G.C.L.I., Viceroy and Governor-General of India, and on 
the other part by LALLA OOMAPERSHAD, in virtue of the full powers conferred 


That any person, whether a British or a Foreign subject, committing a heinous 
offence in British territory, and seeking shelter within the limits of the Ulwur 
State, shall be apprehended and delivered up by the latter Government to the 
former on requisition in the usual manner. 


That any person, being a subject of Ulwur, committing a heinous offence within 
the limits of the Ulwur State, and seeking asylum in British territory, will be 
apprehended and delivered up by the latter Government to the former on requisition, 
in the usual manner. 


That any person, other than an Ulwur subject, committing a heinous offence within 
the limits of the Ulwur State, and seeking asylum in British territory, will be 
apprehended, and the case investigated by such court as the British Government 
may direct. As a general rule, such cases will be tried by the Court of the Political 
Officer, in whom the political supervision of Ulwur may at the time be vested. 


That in no case shall either Government be bound to surrender any person accused 
of a heinous offence, except upon requisition duly made by, or by the authority of, 
the Government within whose territories the offence shall be charged to have been 
committed ; and also upon such evidence of criminality as, according to the laws of 
the country in which the person accused shall be found, would justify his apprehension, 
and sustain the charge if the offence had been there committed. 

( 175 ) 


That the following offences be deemed as coming within the category of heinous 
offences : 

1. Murder. 

2. Attempt to murder. 

3. Culpable homicide under aggravat- 

ing circumstances. 

4. Thuggee. 

5. Poisoning. 
G. Rape. 

7. Causing grievous hurt. 

8. Child-stealing. 

9. Selling females. 
10. Dacoitee. 

11. Robbery. 

12. Burglary. 

13. Cattle-theft. 

14. Arson. 

15. Forgery. 

16. Counterfeiting coin or uttering base 


17. Criminal breach of trust. 

18. Criminal misappropriation of pro- 


19. Abetting the above offences. 


The expenses of any apprehension, detention, or surrender made in virtue of the 
foregoing stipulations, shall be borne and defrayed by the Government making the 


The above Treaty shall continue in force until either of the high contracting 
parties shall give notice to the other of its wish to terminate it. 


Nothing herein contained shall be deemed to affect any Treaty now existing be- 
tween the high contracting parties except so far as any Treaty may be repugnant 

Done at Mount Aboo, this 12th day of October, in the year of our Lord 1867. 

(Signed) W. F. EDEN, 

A yen t Gorei-nor- General. 

(In Persian.) 

Signature of 


Vakeel of 


Ratify this Treaty. (Signed) JOHN LAWRENCE. 

This Treaty was ratified by His Excellency the Viceroy and Governor-General of 
India at Simla, on the 29th day of October 1867. (Signed) W. MUIB, 

Foreign Secretary. 

The Ulwur Chief has (January 1877), under the Native Coinage Act of 1876, sent 
to the Mint of Calcutta, silver to be coined into two laks of rupees, and is about to 
enter into an agreement pledging the Ulwur State to abstain for thirty years from 
coining in the State Mint, and making stipulations regarding the destruction of worn 
coins, regarding counterfeit coin, the issue of coin, and the calling in of coin. His 
Highness is the first Native Chief in India to take advantage of the Native Coinage 

( 176 ) 



.5 .2 




a o* 

|! 2 


3 s# 

a to 

X o .5 





c " v 

O g 



J3 C 

to -?. 


u . jj 


<N O 


a a 




| r 

I? g 


o ^ 

( 177 


The State of Ulwur, situate a few miles to the east of the extended axis of the 
Aravali range is occupied by ranges of hills ; the highest of which rise to an eleva- 
tion of nearly 2400 feet above the level of the sea and about 1600 feet above 
the general level of the surrounding country, formed of wide sandy alluvial plains. 

The direction of the ranges varies considerably ; the most general is north and south 
to north-east and south-west, but in places the ridge describe a complete semicircle. 

In the east of the meridian of the town of Ulwur, there are only narrow ridges, 
varying from 200 yards to a mile in width, but to the west the ranges form a large 
group of hills, in places upwards of twenty miles across, intersected by narrow 
valleys having the same general direction as the hills themselves; both, in fact, 
following the strike of the rocks. 

A considerable variety of rocks are exposed in the hills. The principal are : 
Quartzites, varying in texture from granitic sandstone to a fine compact 


Bands of hornblendic rock. 
Limestones ; some of them in the crystalline state and full of horubleudic 


Hornstone breccia. 
Argillaceous slates. 

Schists, containing andalusite, staurotide, garnets, &c. 
Granitic gneiss. 

With the exception of the gneiss, the whole belong to one series of rocks which 
has been called the Aravali series. 

Very little of the gneiss is seen. It is confined to some isolated hillocks on the 
plain near Reni, and some outcrops at the base of the surrounding ridge, . 
between Tatra and Parli, a coarse porphyrite granitic gneiss containing 
tourmaline is well seen, capped unconfirmably by the quartzites of the Aravali series. 

The hills round Harsora are formed of an obscurely bedded gneiss ; but it is 
doubtful to which series it belongs. The bottom beds of the Aravali series being 
sometimes gneissose ; and in these hills there are 110 other rocks in contact to deter- 
mine the point. 

The rocks of this series, in the Ulwur hills, are greatly contorted and twisted. Their 
most general strike varies from north and south to north-east and south- Th e Aravali 
west, but in places they describe nearly three-fourths of a circle. Many scries, 
repetitions of the same rocks are met with, and the soft and hard rocks folded up 
together ; the latter remaining as hills upwards of 1000 feet above the plain, while the 
former have been partially removed by denudation and the valleys formed in them. 
The dip is always high, seldom at a less angle than 70 degrees. 
The series has been divided into the following groups, in descending order : 
The Mandan group The Ulwur group. 

Ajabgarh Raialo 


The bottom group, the Raialo, is exposed in the three bays, near the southern 
boundary of the state in which the towns of Baswa, Baldeogarh, and 
Raialo are situated. It is also seen a few miles further north near 

( 178 ) 

Jhirrt In the Baswa Bay the group is very poorly represented. It consists of a 
narrow ridge of quartzites just north of Todi, and a band of crystalline white marble 
dipping under the mass of quartzites of the Ulwur group. 

In the Baldeogarh Bay, a broken ridge of quartzites extends from near the town 
of Bhdngarh dipping north ; under the marble of which there is a large spread extend- 
ing about three miles north of the ridge. The quartzite is compact in texture, and 
grey in colour, and regularly bedded. 

The marble varies considerably both in colour and texture, but white is the prevail- 
ing colour. A coarse or very finely crystalline marble can be obtained. Hornblendic 
minerals, such as tremolites, actinolite, and schorl, are very abundant in it. Another 
large spread of the marble occurs a little farther north at Kho. 

The greater part of the Raialo spread is in Jaipur, but the northern portion of it 
extends into the Ulwur territory. 

The relation of the Raialo quartzite to the gneiss upon which it rests cannot be 
determined, as no junction sections are exposed ; there is a large spread of gneiss 
south of Raialo, but the junction is covered by debris. At Baldeogarh, the alluvium 
extends up to the southern side of the ridge of quartzite, covering the rocks upon 
which it rests. In the Todi section also, the alluvium extends up to the ridge, but 
gneiss is exposed in a well a few yards from it on the southern side. On both Bides 
of these three bays the Raialo group is overlapped by the quartzites of the Ulwur 
group, which then rests upon the gneiss. 

This is the most prominent group of the series, as not only are the highest, but the 

greater part of the hills formed of it. The Ulwur part is built on it, 

and the high hills on both sides of the Narainpura valley are formed of 

it. In fact, nearly the whole of the group of hills extending from Mandawar to 

Rajgarh on the east and to Partapgarh on the west as well as the Tijara ridge, are 

formed of it. 

The most important member of this group is the quartzites, of which there is a 
great variety. The greater part of it is regularly bedded, compact, and light grey in 
colour, but in places it is coarse in texture, and even conglomeratic. Ripple marking 
and sun-cracks are very common in the quartzites, and are particularly well seen 
in the Fort hill. An arkose rock is of frequent occurrence at the base of the quartzites, 
where the group rests upon the gneiss. Thin bands of schists are sometimes found 
interbedded with the quartzites, and bands of horblende are common particularly near 
the southern boundary of the state near Tahla and Kaler. 

In an east and west section about the latitude of Ajabgarh, the quartzites are 
repeated at least a dozen times in a series of anticlinals and synclinals in which the 
rocks both above and below them are exposed. 

As I have before said, the Ulwur group overlaps the Raialo and rests upon the 
gneiss. Sections of the junction of the two series are scarce, as it generally takes 
place near the base of a high scarp and is mostly covered by debris. Perhaps the best 
occurs under the Tatra ridge south of the road leading to Tatra. The granitic gneiss 
occurs at the base of the ridge, and upon this rests a regularly bedded coarse quartzite, 
dipping at a high angle to the west. North of the road some additional beds come 
in between the granitic gneiss and the quartzites. Resting immediately upon the 
granitic gneiss is a band of conglomerate about two feet thick, composed principally 
of rolled pebbles of quartz ; upon this there is a considerable thickness of an arkose 
rock, the materials of which were apparently derived from the gneiss. This passes up 

( 179 ) 

gradually into the ordinary quartzites of the series. On the eastern side of the bay 
south of Garhl a very similar section is exposed. 

Near Bhadokar there is another junction in which the gneiss, composed principally 
of white feldspar, very little quartz, and plates of mica, forms a band about 12 feet 
across surrounded by the quartzites. In a little hill close by, near the base of the 
quartzites, there are some bands 1 foot to 1 foot 6 inches thick of detrital mica 2 or 3 
inches across presumably devide from the gneiss. 

In places the arkose rocks have been remetamorphosed to such an extent that, but 
for their connection with the gneiss below or the quartzites above, it would be diffi- 
cult to tell them from the true gneiss. Thus the hills round Harsora and Samda are 
formed of obscurely bedded gneiss, but from their being isolated from the plain (the 
only rocks near is the ridge of quartzite at Mokanpura about half a mile south), I am 
unable to say to which series they belong. 

The arkose rocks are well developed north-west of the town of Ulwur at Dadfkar. 
They there form a circle, filled with alluviums, blown sand, &c., covering the rocks 
below; the arkose rocks at base, particularly at the south-west corner, are highly 
crystalline, but in getting up the hill they pass gradually into the quartzites. Hills 
of the arkose rocks passing into the quartzites are met with at Palpur, Bagheri, Khirtal, 
and Palari. 

Where the Ulwur group rests upon the Raialo as at Dariba, a thin band of black 
slates occurs below the quartzites. Similar black slates run through the series and are 
largely developed in the Ajabgarh group. The Dariba mines are in these black 
slates. In places the quartzites become very micaceous and have a schistose structure. 
This is the case near Rajgarh and Kirwari. It appears to be quite a local feature, and 
not constant in the series. 

Near the base of the quartzites, several bands of hornblende are intercalated with 
them. Some of these bands are of considerable thickness and form hills several 
hundred feet high. Sometimes six or even more of these bands are seen alternating 
with bands of quartzites. These hornblende bands are very variable in the section ; 
near Kankwari and south-east of Partapgarh they are very numerous and attain to a 
great thickness. At Dadlkar and Hamirpur they are represented by two or three 
irregular bands and in some sections as near Rajgarh ; where the whole of the Ulwur 
group is exposed, the hornblende bands are entirely absent. 

The thickness of the Ulwur group varies in different sections ; thus, near Ulwur and 
in the hills west of Rajgarh, an enormous thickness of quartzites is exposed, but to- 
wards the southern boundary of the state, as at the southern end of the Tatra ridge, 
or where the railway cuts through it west of Mandaor, the thickness is reduced to a 
few hundred feet. 

This group contains a considerable thickness and a great variety of rocks, the 
principal of which are limestones, quartzite, hornstone breccia, and 
slates. The rocks of this group occupy the synclinal troughs formed by 
the quartzites of the Ulwur group, and in some of the ridges east of the 
town of Ulwur. These valleys are the Delawas, Kushalgarh, Ajabgarh, and the Narainpur. 

A thick band of limestone, the lowest member of this group (it has been named 
the Kushalgarh limestone, as it is well-developed in that valley), rests upon the 
quartzites of the Ulwur group. The hornstone breccia is generally found on the top 
of the limestone, but is frequently absent. Above this there is a band of quartzite 
upon which rests a considerable thickness of black slates capped by a quartzite (the 

( 180 ) 

Berla quartzite). Up to this there is a continuous section of the Ajabgarh group in 
the valleys ; but the rocks above being only exposed in the isolated ridges east of 
Ulwur are consequently, difficult to place in the section. The ridge extending south 
from the Moti-dungri hill (close to Ulwur) composed of alternations of calcareous and 
quartzite bands is clearly higher in the section than the Berla quartzite, and the 
Goleta ridge, about six miles east of Ulwur, probably still higher in the section. 

At the head of the Delawas valley the rocks are much contorted, and the Kushal- 
garh limestone is repeated in the two little valleys east of the Serawas. Lower down 
the valley at Rosra and Delawas the limestone is again seen with intercalated thin 
bands of schists and quartzites. Near Siliserh (four miles south-west of Ulwur) the 
hornstone breccia above the limestone is exposed. The hornstone breccia is, in some 
places, obscurely bedded, but it generally occurs in great masses devoid of any struc- 
ture. It sometimes contains large pebbles of quartzites; this is the case at the 
southern end of the Siliserh lake, where it is largely developed. There is a large 
spread of the limestone in the Kushalgarh valley. It covers the whole of the bottom 
of the valley, nearly two miles wide, and extends from two or three miles east of 
Kushalgarh to the head of the valley at Talbrich ; beyond this point it passes round 
the quartzites into the Narainpur valley. In the southern branch of the valley it ex- 
tends to near Indok, where it becomes covered by the higher rocks of the group. 

A thicker section of the Ajabgarh group is exposed in the Ajabgarh valley. The 
Kushalgarh limestone, resting upon the Ulwur quartzites, is seen on both sides, dip- 
ping towards the centre of the valley, though not so continuously on the west as on 
the east side. The hornstone breccia and the quartzites above appear to be very irregu- 
larly developed in this valley : the breccia is nearly continuous on the west side, and 
there is but little of the quartzites, but on the east side, particularly at the northern 
end, a considerable thickness of the quartzite and but little of breccia is seen. 

The whole of the centre of the valley is occupied by the black slates. These rocks 
extend into the Narainpur valley as far as Ghazi ka Thana, but north of that there are 
only a few small hills of the slates in the centre, and some of the limestone and breccia 
on either side of the valley. The remainder is covered by alluvium. 

The eastern edge of the Ulwur quartzites at Ulwur and for a long way south dip at 
an angle of about 80 degrees to the east, under a broken section of the Ajabgarh group, 
here represented by a few hillocks of the Kushalgarh limestone and .breccia, and the 
overlying quartzites. The slates are entirely covered by the alluvium, which extends 
to the Moti-dungri ridge, nearly the highest member of the group. Of the ridges on 
the eastern side of the State many of them are formed of the rocks of the Ajabgarh 
group. Thus in the hills forming a broken circle a few miles east of Ulwur ; in the 
centre there is a hill of the Ulwur quartzites dipping in all directions towards the 
edge of the circle, and under the encircling ridge of the Ajabgarh rocks, consisting, on 
the eastern side, of the black slates and quartzites in which crystals of Andalusite are 
abundant. The rocks on the western side are higher in the section. At Loharwari 
there is a black limestone, probably the same as that in the Moti-dungri ridge, and 
above a considerable thickness of a rough blue quartzite largely quarried for grinding 
stones. Between the centre hill and the ridge are some hillocks formed of the 
Kushalgarh limestone and breccia. 

The four ridges east of Malakhera, something in the shape of an inverted W, form a 
double anticlinal in which the Ajabgarh rocks are well represented. In the centre of 
the western there is a large hill of the Ulwur quartzites dipping under the Kushal- 

( 181 ) 

garh limestone and breccia on three sides, viz., north, east, and west, above which 
come the black slates, with a band of talcose limestone near the base, and covered by 
the Berla quartzite of which the quarter portion of the four ridges are formed. This 
quartzite or rather quartzite sandstone, for it is less altered than most of the series, re- 
quires notice, as it makes a splendid building stone, and is largely quarried for that 
purpose ; it is pearly grey in colour and contains numerous species of a black mineral, 
probably hornblende. 

In the eastern anticlinal a similar section is exposed, with the exception of the 
Ulwur quartzites in the centre. 

The western limit of the double anticlinal extends in a northerly direction as far 
as Nowjanwa, where the Ulwur quartzites of the Tijara ridge dip under it, and in a 
south-westerly direction some miles beyond the Deotl lake in a synclinal trough of the 
Ulwur quartzites. 

The rocks of this group form the ridges in the north-west corner of the state, 
principally on the left bank of the Sdbi river at Mandan, Bdrod, and 
Tasing, as well as the double ridge at Mandaor, thirty miles to the T ^ e Mandan 
south-east of Ulwur. The group consists of schists abounding in 
crystals of andalusite, staurotide, garnets and actinolite, and some thin bands 
of quartzite interbedded with them. There is some doubt as to the position 
of these rocks in the series or even if they belong to the series at all. This 
doubt arises from their occurring in isolated ridges disconnected from any 
known rock of the series. Near Barod, however, there is a long hill formed of the 
Kushalgarh limestone and breccia between two ridges of the schists, and separated 
from them about half a mile of alluvium. 

Again, at the south-east corner of the state, at Mandaor, the double ridge of 
Mandan schists occurs between two ridges of Ulwur quartzites converging towards 
the south, and both dipping towards the schists, apparently forming a synclinal in 
which the schists lie. Mineralogically there is little difference between the Mandan 
rocks and those of the known Aravali series ; thus the Ajabgarh schists containing 
andalusite, &c., in the hills east of Ulwur as well as the quartzites, are very similar 
to those of the Mdndan group. So that it seems probable that the Mdndan rocks 
readily belong to the series, and if so, is the highest group here represented. 

The position of the Aravali series in the scale of the Indian geology is probably 
between the Gwalior and the Vindhyan series. There can be little doubt that they 
are older than the Vindhyans, as in Karauli there are some ridges of the Aravali rocks 
upon which the Kaimur sandstone, the lowest member of the upper Vindhyan series, 
rests unconformably. The evidence of their being younger than the Gwaliors is not 
so clear. There is no evidence upon this point in the Ulwur territory, as the only two 
series of rocks there exposed are the Aravali and the Gneiss. In a ridge near Hindoun 
the banded red jasper rocks of the Gwalior series are exposed dipping at a high angle to 
the north. On the north side are some hills of quartzite, sandstone, and limestone 
resting unconformably on the Gwaliors. These are probably outliers of the Aravalis, 
the rocks of which series cover a large area in the Biana hills, a few miles to the north. 
It is possible, however, they belong to the Vindhyan series, which occur a few miles 
to the south. It is some years since I saw the section, and at that time I had hardly 
seen the Aravali series, and not in a position to determine the identification with them. 
Another section bearing upon the question is found near Tunja, in Jaipur territory, 
where large pebbles of a rock very similar to the Gwaliors are found in a conglomerate 
of the Aravali series. 

( 182 ) 

The useful minerals in Ulwur are more numerous than abundant. They con- 
Economic Bist of 
geology. Copper pyrites Rutile. 

Argentiferous Galena. Manganese, and 

Nickel. Iron. 

Several old copper workings exist in Ulwur, from which, through a long series of 
years, a considerable amount of ore has been extracted ; but at the present time they 
are almost entirely abandoned. The natives say that some of the richest deposits of 
ore had to be abandoned in consequence of the influx of water. In other cases 
the richest mines fell together, burying a number of miners, and have not since been 

The following is a list of the localities in which copper-ore has been worked, or 
traces of it observed : 

Dariba. Tasing. 

In the ridge to the west. Kushalgarh. 

Indawas. Baghani. 

Bhangarh. Partapgarh. 

The most important of these is at Dariba. The mine is situated in a sharp anti- 
clinical bend in the black slates and quartzites, the lowest beds of the Ulwur group. 
An adit level is driven into the hill through the black slates, in a southerly direction, 
parallel to the strike of the rocks. I could see no trace of a lode, but the ore appears 
to be irregularly disseminated through the black slates, a few specs and stains only 
being seen in the quartzites. Where richer nests of the ore were met with, the miners 
have extended their workings a short distance above and below the level. The miners 
declare that a rich nest of ore occurs in a pit sunk below the level near its southern 
extremity, but it had to be abandoned on account of the water. 

The present drift was, I believe, begun under the instructions of Captain Impey, 
formerly Political Agent at Ulwur, to drain the pits sunk by the natives in the hillside. 

The copper occurs in the form of copper pyrites, mixed with arsenical iron. Small 
quantities of carbonate of copper were observed in the mine, probably the result of 
the decomposition of the sulphur. The mine is now nearly abandoned, and but little 
ore is to be seen. I had some difficulty in finding a bit the size of a nut. 

I found traces of copper in some black slates on the same geological horizon in 
the ridge a short distance west of Dariba. 

Near Indawas there is a long open cutting from 20 to 30 feet deep, from which 
copper-ore has been extracted, but the workings are now full of water. About a mile 
from these workings some miners are engaged in sinking a small pit in Kushalgarh 
limestone, from which they get a little ore. 

The Bhangarh workings consist of two or three small pits now fallen together. 

I found traces of copper in the schist hills near Tasing. 

The workings of Kushalgarh, Baghani, and Partapgarh have been abandoned for 
many years. The natives say that at the two latter places the workings were very 
extensive, and that the workings fell together suddenly, burying a large number of 

A few years since, a small deposit of silver lead ore was discovered in the Kushal- 
garh limestone near Gudha, and a pit was sunk in it, but after working 
for a short time the ore died out in every direction. The pit has now 
fallen together. 

( 183 ) 

Mr. Mallet discovered some rutile ("titanic acid) in sorae small quartz veins in the 
Moti-dungri ridge, a short distance south of Ulwur. Rutile. 

Iron in large quantities occurs in two places near the base of the Aravali series. 
One near Rajgarh, and the other near Bhangarh. They supply the 
ore to a large number of furnaces in the state. Judging from the 
workings, an immense quantity of iron must have been produced by 
these mines. The excavations are several hundred yards long, and in places twenty or 
thirty wide. These excavations appeared to be at an angle to the strike of the rocks ; 
but the rocks near are so disturbed, and the junctions covered by debris, that I was not 
able to determine the point. The following is an analysis of the ore from Bhangarh : 

A mixture of limonite, magnatite, and oxide of manganese 
Contains 59 '6 per cent, of iron, and 
12 of manganese. 

When making inquiries for the mineral " zaipurite," a mineral of cobalt, 
found in the Aravali series at the Khetrl mines in Shekawati, I was 
shown a bit of iron, and the ore from which it had been produced. 
The iron was used for cannon balls, which flew into a number of fragments when fired. 
The ore came from the Bhangarh mine. On analysis both the iron and the ore were 
found to contain nickel, iu the latter, however, only a trace. I tried to find the ore 
in situ, but was not successful. I was shown the pit from which it had been taken, 
but it had fallen together. 

Building materials, some of a very superior quality, are abundant in the Ulwur 

Limestone, capable of making good lime, exists in all parts of the state. The 
ordinary quartzite is a useful stone for rough buildings, walls, &c., but the Berla 
quartzite makes an excellent building stone. It is pearly grey in colour, very durable, 
not difficult to work, and easily quarried. It is largely quarried at Berla, Doroli, 
Bharkhol, and quarries of it could be opened in any part of the four ridges east of 
Malakhera. A large part of the Raja's private station at Ulwur is built of this stone. 

Schistose quartzites used for roofing, flags, tfcc., are largely quarried near Rajgarh, 
Kirwari, and Mandan. At the Rajgarh quarries I have seen slabs of this rock 
nearly 20 feet long and 2 feet wide. The Mandan rock produces large square thin 

The Ajabgarh slates have been used for roofing most of the stations of the railway. 
It is not quarried, that I know of, in Ulwur, but some of the hills in the Ajabgarh 
valley would, I think, produce equally good slates. 

The Talcose limestone at the base of the black slates is used for ornamental pur- 
poses in the form of carved door-posts, <fec. It is a soft stone and easily carved, but I 
do not think it can be very durable. 

The Raialo group produces a capital marble. The Taj at Agra is, I believe, built 
of the marble from this band. It is quarried at Jhirri, and the natives 
there are still very clever in making "jalee," or perforated screens. 

Coloured marbles can be had near Kho and Baldeogarh, and black marble from 
the Moti-dungri ridge. 

Good millstones are made from the blue quartzites of the Goleta ridge. 


( 184 ) 


Captain Impey, when Political Agent of Ulwur, made two summary settlements of 

Captain Impey's t ^ e ^ an< ^ revenue the first for three years, the second for ten. They 

settlements. were based on an average of collections for a series of years, modified 

by a rough calculation of capacity to pay. The last expired in A.D. 1871, and in 

January 1872 a settlement officer was appointed, with directions to make a regular 

settlement of the revenue. 

As this regular settlement could not be completed for several years, a new sum- 
Summary settle- mar y settlement was at once made, by which the revenue was raised 
ment of 1872. seven and a half per cent., thus 

Average collections of Captain Tmpey's 3-year settlement of 1858, 1,429,425 

Average collections of Captain Impey's 10-year settlement of 1861, 1,719,815 
Annual demand fixed by summary settlement in 1872, . . 1,892,513 

The survey was made with plane tables. Efficient superintendents and inspec- 
tors were obtained from British territory, and about 90 measurers 


(Amins) ; but 130 Patwarrfs and others of the Ulwur State were, by 
dint of much effort, rendered proficient in the use of the plane table. These last sur- 
veyed nearly one-fourth of the villages. Field surveys were made of only the Khalisa 
or fiscal villages, which number 1431. Of the 357 rent-free villages boundary (had 
bast) maps were made. 

The rentals were determined in the manner directed and practised in the North- 
West Provinces.* The different kinds of soil were marked off on the 
village maps, and the inspecting officer endeavoured by every means to 
ascertain the average rent of each kind in the locality. Cultivators, rent-free grantees 
in the neighbourhood, and officials were questioned about the rents ; quarrels between 
cultivators and proprietors sometimes threw light on them. Heavily assessed villages, 
the proprietors of which could get as rent no more than the revenue from their 
tenants, would not attempt concealment. In villages where one " bhach " (or rate of 
revenue distribution) prevailed, that was often the true rent-rate for the worst lands 
in the hands of village servants. The old revenue crop rates of the pargana were 
always referred to, and compared with the result of the rent-rates proposed. The 
rent-rates adopted are shown below. 

In assessing, the total assets of the village from all sources were taken into con- 
sideration, and all the information necessary to the assessing officer 
was arranged synoptically in a statistical paper prepared for each 

The portion of the net assets fixed as the State share was generally two-thirds. 
But where three-fourths or more had been paid without apparent difficulty, three- 
fourths was determined. Favoured classes already spoken of were assessed at 
lower rates. 

Appeals against the assessment were heard, tahslldars consulted, and some 
modifications of the sums first fixed were made by the Political 
Appealfl - Agent. 
The system of assessing villages with lump sums, instead of each field according 

* Mr. Colvin'a Manual and his Memorandum on the revision of settlements in the 
North-West Provinces were found specially valuable aids. 

( 185 ) 

to the ryot-warree system, was adopted, as it bad been in vogue even before Captain 
Impey's settlements.* 

Reductions on the assessment of the ten - year settlement were given to the 
amount of Rs. 47,293 ; but the net increase on the collections of the 
last year of Captain Impey's settlement is for the first year of the 
new settlement 207,851, rising to 267,743 by the twelfth year. That 
is, an immediate increase of nearly 1 2 per cent, on the ten-year settlement, and nearly 
3 per cent, on the summary settlement of 1872. The assessments are shown in the 
statement attached. 

The rate per bigha on the present cultivated area will be R. 1-7-4 the first year, 
and 1-8 the last. 

A record of rights was laboriously compiled for each village ; the 
papers were neatly bound together, and the village field-map copied "rights? 
on tracing cloth attached. 

Whilst the settlement was in progress, advances (takavi) to the amount of nearly 
Rs. 80,000 were made to villagers for the construction of wells. The 
lands they will irrigate were not assessed as irrigated. 

In very few of the villages possessing land irrigated by streams was a separate 

water-rate imposed to be levied each year only on land actually sub- 

* J Water-rates, 

merged. 1 hough the area so irrigated vanes greatly with the season, 

the people generally preferred lump sums. 

The position of Patwarrees has been greatly improved. Most formerly received 
under Rs. 50 a year. Now there are four grades, of which the pay is 
respectively Rs. 5, 6, 7, and 8 a month. A large number, about 85 
out of 454,t learnt the use of the plane table sufficiently well to survey villages satis- 
factorily. The rest were compelled to prove their comprehension of the village map* 
and their ability by means of it to restore destroyed boundary pillars. Detailed direc- 
tions for the guidance of Patwarrees in the discharge of their ordinary duties have 
been issued. 

The only tahsll requiring notice additional to that in Part IV. is Govindgarh. It 
was formerly irrigated by the Riiparel brought into it by the Hazarl Govindgarh 
bandh, the dam which affected the battle of Laswaree. Although the Tahsil. 
tahsll has not been so irrigated since s. 1894 (A.D. 1837), the high revenue rates 

* Before Captain Impey's settlements there were in vogue four modes of fixing the 
annual land revenue : 

Kank-6,1, or appraisement of the standing corn. 

Batai, weighment of the gathered grain. For the share taken by State, see page 184. 

Chakota, a rough money assessment left to the villagers to distribute, and sometimes, 
though not often, prolonged for more than a season, or even more than a year. 

JBigheri, or assessment by the pargana crop rate per bigha, fixed almost permanently 
by the Darbar for each kind of crop. Sometimes bigheri, chakota, and batai would all be 
employed in the same village in the same year. 

Contract for a short term of years, sometimes with the proprietors, sometimes with a 
speculator. The latter would make his collections either in accordance with the pargana 
crop rates or by the other methods. This system began to come much into vogue forty 
years ago. It seems to have been introduced by Musalman ministers of M. R. Baniu 
Singh ; and before Major Impey's settlements it prevailed extensively, indeed pretty 
generally throughout the State. 

t One hundred and twenty-one are in the first two grades. Amongst them the sur- 
veyors are included. 

2 A 

( 186 ) 

which were originally due to the irrigation had been more or less upheld, and the con- 
sequence was that the villages were in a very distressed state. Large remissions were 
necessary, and the revenue was reduced from Rs. 101,876 to Us. 89,912. The revenue 
in some of the villages was so high that it was marvellous how the people paid it at 
all, and substantial reductions were possible, notwithstanding that the existing revenue 
was never reduced unless it was more than 75 per cent, of the net assets. 

Date of commen- The new settlement, with the sanction of the Council, came into force 
cement of new 10*0 j > t i. 

Settlement. on 1st September Io7o, and is to run for sixteen years. 

The total cost of the settlement has been Rs. 310,000. Of this, 
Rs. 115,000 has been on account of survey. 

The time taken has been four years and four months. This includes the operations 
connected with the summary settlement of 1872. 

Captain Abbott was officiating Settlement Officer for twenty months, whilst 
Major Powlett was acting for Major Cadell as Political Agent of Ulwur. 

Crops, crop-rates, tenures, proprietory rights, principles on which disputes were 
determined, have been treated of under " Agriculture," &c. 

The judicial cases decided by the Settlement Department, exclusive 
Judicial cases. , ^ ,.,. , . , ,, 

of appeals to Political Agent, were as follows : 

Boundary ........ 

Proprietory right or biswaddri .... 

Miscellaneous ....... 

Appeal . , . ..... 

Total 13,800 

( 187 ) 






,' Tijdra pargana 

Rs. An. Rs. An. 

Rs. An. Rs. An. 

In 1st class villages . 

from 2 12 to 4 8 

from 14 to 1 12 

,, 2d ,, 

2 4 4 

12 1 8 


2 3 8 

8 1 4 

< Tapokra pargana 

45 In main circle . . 

2 4 3 2 

1 1 6 


gf north . . . 

2 4 3 4 

:, 1 1 8 

\. The lowest irrigated 

east . . . 

30,, ... 

14 1 4 

C is flooded land. 

\ south . . . 

,, 34,, 

1 1 6 



1st class .... 

,, 2 5 4 

1 8 3 


2d . . . . 

2 5 

,, 1 4 2 12 

\ Ditto. 

3d .... 

,, 4 4 4 12 

. 14 2 8 



1st flooded circle . 

2 8 5 8 

1 4 3 8 


2d . 

2 8 5 

1 2 2 12 

> Ditto. 

1st sandy 

4 4 4 8 

1 2 12 

2d . 

3 12 4 

14 2 8 



Western sandy circle 

44,, ... 

1 2 2 


Eastern loam ,, 

40,, ... 

1 6 2 

> Ditto. 

Northern flooded 

3 4 4 

1 2 


3 4 

1 2 2 2 



1st class villages . 

44,, ... 

1 6 3 


,,38,, ... 

1 2 8 


1st class .... 

3 5 

1 2 4 


2d . . . . 

2 12 4 8 

14 2 

V Ditto. 

3d .... 

2 8 4 

14 2 



1st class . . .' 

6 6 

1 2 8 

2d . . . . 

4 5 

1 2 4 

3d .... 

3 8 4 

14 2 


1st class .... 

4 6 

1 3 


2d . . . . 

2 12 6 

1 2 8 

V Ditto. 

3d .... 

2 8 5 

1 1 12 



Pargana Reni Mdcheri . . 

1 12 4 10 

1 2 1 

Rdjpiir, one crop land 

2 4 14 

1 11 ... 

Double ,, 

7 12 ... 

,, ... ,, 

. Ditto. 

, Rdfaarh . 

28 59 

1 8 

Tahla, one cropped land 

,, u \j ,, / / 
2 8 5 1 

,, * u ,, ... 
,,17,, ... 

Double ,, 

96,, ... 

Loam I. circle . 

5 4 6 

1 6 3 4 

A rate intermediate be- 
tween irrigated and unir- 
rigated was charged on ir- 

Sandy I. . . 


5 4 5 12 
4 4 4 12 
4 4 8 

1 2 2 12 
1 2 2 10 
12 2 4 

rigahle. A rate from 2 ans. 
to4ans. lower than Ji/mr 
1 1 . was charged on sandy 
hillocks called pfith. 

Class I. ... 

1 8 5 8 

12 2 2 

Dofasli, or double crop- 
ped land, is charged at 9 
>. rs. in seven villages. The 

II. ... 

1 4 4 8 

12 2 

lowest irrigated is flood- 

in. . . . 

ThAna GhAzf 

1 3 8 

10 1 

ed land. Kdtli is charged 
' Rs. 1-12 and Rs. 2-4. 



land irrigated 
ous ways, see 













'Pint U9 








putii ip^ 





The collections of passed 
settlements often exceed the 

total amount previously as- 






holdings falling in, and from 
other causes. 



CO <M 

o <n oo 

CO i 1 OO 



t~ I CO O O 

O CO r-H O I 1 




Tt< O 

(J^| f^*> IC$ 
CS CS ^J< 




CO CO O 5 5 





CS b- 

^ co 

m CM oo 

CO i 1 !>. 

OO CS -^ 





C<l t OO O W5 

CO -* t- O CO 
i I OO OO I-H O 



o o 

co o 

t-- OS CO 
00 00 ^ 





i-H CO ^5 "^ OS 

CO CO IO 1O * 



-i ** 



co i i 

** 00 CO 
CO t CO 
OO <M C<l 




co oo oo I-H <n 

CO >O CO W5 !>. 
s ! t^* C^l t^" CO 


|P-3 2 -g 
. o a d 

CO * 




co co" os oo" i i 


v jc d Q> 
^ Q W 

I 1 

S 1 

<M i 1 

00 O 

CS i 1 lO 
<M -*f I-H 



l>. ff-1 OO CO O 




i-H 00 

O ^f 

t- 00 (M 
* CS <M 



"^ OO CS CS C^l 
<*! CO CO (N CO 




Name of Tahsil 

i- 5 


Kathumbar ... 

Kishengarh ... 


| | M S 

3 & S g g 

| a . S 
& $ s* 



I-H C-l 

CO "*" O 



00 OS O ~H (M 

i-H r-H i-H 













Khdlisa, or fiscal, i.e., revenue- pay ing . 1431J 
Muafi, or revenue-free .... 357 
Jstamrdr, or permanently settled . . 6 
Nahri, or under Canal Department, i.e., 
not settled 3 



Total Well Rans. 


ill tir-.-.-il 


wm-noN ;o 



iinogBK ;o 




ta-uo>i jo 




Il^AV ' 
XjaosBiv JO 




Cost of a Well. 


swio P8 








S8BJO pg 


1 1 

ssBto ps 


9SBIO ?t 




asn jo jno FUSM. 

t I 


Wells Kacha, 
or non- 

ao 'ifonjf 


Of Fiscal Tillages only. 







jBosg jo 'o*??PV^r 





_< * 


H w 





Detail of Wells 




8ni5[nijp joj sn8j& 


pn[ i^opg uo 
noH8|jJi jo; si[3A\ 

I 1 

I 1 







l^osg ni puui aajj 

-9t\tiaA9J UO Sl[8_iV 






Well Depths. 

3 fe 



SSBIO pe | ^n 













F 1 





From surface 
of ground to 
Water Level. 








iinaqg .-< 

SBBIO 581 

1 1 

nq?n,j (M 

uqpjijf "-> 

Well Runs. 

9i-u9i jayy 



tfMJtjqa ,_. 

'JOT3 rn 

MBSnqfl oi 


JSi-U9X ^V 




1 1 

A"raug ,-t 

tHTOUg ,-H 

Masonry Wells. 

reai-nsj, UV 




i 1 

jBq8nn eo 


pA"usg o 

JB9i-n9j, IV 



r- 1 

'J19N * 



i t 

Land Cultivated 
(Settlement Bighas). 


JB9J5.-H3J, J31JV 


S' 00 


S 2- 


numnjug J* 


j9i-u9,L ?y 




pp o_ 

i l 

T S 






I ( 



J89i-n3x s,A"9dnii 
ni?dBO J9ijv 





jB9i-U9j, s/adraj 
utBiduo t)v 




OK . 




: - 'C ~- -'.' ~. O> 


w - 

S C* 


ej -< 



n e 


1-1 eo 

JO .'7.1. )I! ..> 


-2 " ^>^ 

i -4 

"6 -e s 

i i ' K 

* "1 



g o 

1* 8 

cc E- 

( 192 ) 


SINGH BAHADUR MAHARAO RAJA OF ULWUR, his heirs and successors, executed 
on the one part by Major Thomas Cadell, V.C., Political Agent at the Court of 
Ulwur, under authority from Alfred C. Lyall, Esq., Officiating Agent to the 
Governor- General for the States of Rajpootana, in virtue of the full powers 
vested in him by His Excellency the Right Honourable Edward Robert 
Lytton Bulwer Lytton, Baron Lytton of Kneb worth, G.M.S.I., Viceroy and 
Governor -General of India, and on the other part by Pandit Rupnarain Rai 
Bahadur, Member of the Regency Council, Ulwur, in virtue of the full powers 
conferred upon him by the Government of Ulwur. 

Whereas the British Government is desirous of abolishing artificial restrictions on 
and impediments to internal trade, and in pursuance thereof proposes to abolish the 
inland customs line and the duty thereat levied on sugar and other saccharine produce 
exported from British territory into Ulwur and other Native States ; and 

Whereas the Government of Ulwur is willing to co-operate with the British 
Government in giving effect to this measure, both by making such arrangements in 
its own territories as may render the abolition of the inland customs line in the 
neighbourhood of the Ulwur State possible without risk to the Imperial salt revenue, 
and by abolishing all duties on salt, sugar, and all other articles, entering, leaving, or 
passing through its territories ; and 

Whereas the salt now manufactured within the Ulwur territories is limited in 
quantity and inferior in quality ; 

The following articles are agreed upon : 


From and after a date to be fixed by the British Government, the Government of 
Ulwur shall suppress and absolutely prohibit and prevent the manufacture of salt 
within the Ulwur State, whether overtly or under the guise of manufacturing saltpetre 
or other saline product, and shall destroy existing saltpans, so that salt cannot be 
made therein. 


From and after a date to be fixed by the British Government, no export, import, 
or transit duty of any kind shall be levied by, or with the permission or knowledge 
of, the Ulwur Government within the Ulwur territories. 

Provided that nothing in this article shall be held to prohibit the levy of octroi, 
choongi, or other cess or duty on any articles imported into towns within the Ulwur 
territory, and intended for actual consumption therein, subject only to the condition 
that such octroi, choongi, or other cess or duty, shall not be levied in any town where 
it is not levied at the time of the conclusion of this agreement, unless such town con- 
tains a population of not less than five thousand (5000) inhabitants ; and 

Provided further, that nothing in this article shall be held to debar the Ulwur 
Government from levying any such duty on bhang, ganja, spirits, opium, or other 
intoxicating drug or preparation, as it may consider necessary for excise purposes. 

( 193 ) 


The Government of Ulwur shall prohibit and prevent the importation into and 
consumption within the Ulwur territories of any salt not being salt produced at works 
controlled by the British Government, and which has paid the duty levied by the 
British Government on salt so produced. 

The Ulwur Government shall also, if so required by the British Government, pre- 
vent the export from its territories into British territory of any of the intoxicating 
drugs or preparations referred to at the close of the preceding article. 


If any considerable stock of salt be proved to exist within the Ulwur territories 
at the time when the arrangements herein agreed upon shall be brought into operation, 
the Government of Ulwur shall, if so required by the British Government, take posses- 
sion of such stocks of salt, and shall give the owners thereof the option either of 
transferring the salt to the British Government at such equitable valuation as may be 
fixed by the Government of Ulwur in concurrence with the Political Agent in Ulwur, 
or of paying to the said Agent a duty not exceeding Rupees 3 per maund. In the 
event of the owners as aforesaid accepting the latter alternative, they shall be allowed 
to retain the salt on which duty as provided may be paid. 


The British Government shall at its own expense maintain one or more officers 
with a small establishment, which officer or officers shall be under the orders of the 
Government of Ulwur, and shall, when so ordered, visit any part of the Ulwur terri- 
tories, and report to the Government of Ulwur, or to such officials as may be appointed 
by the Government of Ulwur to receive such reports, any infractions or alleged or 
suspected infractions of the orders which the Government of Ulwur may issue for the 
purpose of giving effect to Articles I. and II. of this agreement, and the officer or officers 
aforesaid may be invested by the Government of Ulwur with authority to investigate 
all such infractions and to prosecute the offenders before such of the Ulwur tribunals 
as the Government of Ulwur may appoint for the trial of such offenders. 


In consideration of the due and effectual observance by the Government of Ulwur 
of all the stipulations hereinbefore provided, the British Government agrees to pay to 
the Government of Ulwur yearly the sum of one hundred and twenty-five thousand 
rupees in half-yearly instalments, the first instalment to be paid after the expiration 
of six months from the date fixed as provided in Articles I. and II. 

Provided that it be proved to the satisfaction of the Government of Ulwur that 
private rights have in any case been infringed by the suppression of local manufac- 
ture above provided for, the said Government shall equitably compensate any persons 
whose rights have been infringed for any losses thereby sustained. 

Further, the British Government engages to deliver yearly at Sambhur, free of 
cost and duty, one thousand niauuds of salt of good quality for the use of the Govern- 
ment of Ulwur to any one empowered by the said Government of Ulwur in that behalf. 


None of the stipulations herein agreed upon shall be in any way set aside or modi- 
fied without the previous consent of both parties. 


( 194 ) 

No. 1148P. 

From the OFFG. SECRETARY to the GOVERNMENT of INDIA to A. 0. HUME, Esq., C.B., 

on Special Duty. 

(Foreign Department, Political.) 

SIMLA, 22d May 1877. 

SIR, In reply to your letter No. 36, dated 9th April 1877, I am directed to say 
that the Governor-General in Council approves the revised draft Agreement submitted 
therewith, which it is proposed to execute between the British Government and the 
Ulwur State. I have the honour to be, Sir, your most obedient servant, 

(Signed) T. H. THORNTON, 

0/g. Secy, to the Govt. of India. 

AGREEMENT under the Native Coinage Act, 1876, with His HIGHNESS THE 

ARTICLES OF AGREEMENT made between the GOVERNMENT OF INDIA on the one part, 
and His HIGHNESS THE MAHARAO RAJA OF ULWUR of the other part. 

Whereas under the Native Coinage Act, 1876, the Governor- General in Council 
has power from time to time to declare by notification in the Gazette of India that a 
tender of payment of money, if made in the coins, or the coins of any specified metal, 
made under the said Act for any Native State, shall be a legal tender in British India. 
And whereas by section four of the said Act it is declared that such power shall be 
exercisable only under certain conditions, amongst which is the condition that the 
Native State for which such coins are coined shall enter into agreements corresponding 
with the first three articles of these presents. And whereas by section five of the said 
Act any such State is authorised to send to any mint in British India metal to be 
made into coin under the same Act, and (subject as therein mentioned) the Mint 
Master is required to receive such metal and convert it into coin. 

And whereas His Highness the said Maharao Raja of Ulwur is a Native State 
within the meaning of the said Act, and has, pursuant to such authority, sent to the 
Mint of Calcutta silver to be coined under the said Act into two lakhs of rupees, and 
has requested the Government of India to exercise the power hereinbefore recited in 
the case of the said coins, and the Government of India has consented to exercise such 
power by issuing the requisite notification in the Gazette of India on the execution by 
His Highness the said Maharao Raja of Ulwur of this Agreement. 

Now these presents witness, and it is hereby agreed between the parties hereto as 
follows (that is to say) : 

First, His Highness the Maharao Raja of Ulwur agrees for himself and his suc- 
cessors to abstain during a term of thirty years from the date of the notification 
aforesaid from coining silver in his own Mint, and also undertakes that no coins 
resembling silver coins, for the time being a legal tender in British India, shall after 
the expiration of the said term be struck under the authority of himself or his 
successors, or with his or their permission at any place within or without his or their 

( 195 ) 

Secondly, His Highness the said Maharao Raja of Ulwur hereby agrees for him- 
self and his successors that the law and rules for the time being in force, respecting 
the cutting and breaking of coin of the Government of India reduced in weight by 
reasonable wearing or otherwise, or counterfeit, or called in by proclamation, shall 
apply to the coins made for the said State under the said Act, and that the said State 
will defray the cost of cutting and breaking them. 

Thirdly, His Highness the said Maharao Raja of Ulwur further agrees for him- 
self and his successors not to issue the said coins below their nominal value, and not 
to allow any discount or other advantage to any person in order to bring them into 

Fourthly, His Highness the said Maharao Raja of Ulwur agrees for himself and 
his successors that if at any time the Government of India calls in its coinage of 
rupees, His Highness or his successors will, if so requested by the Government of India, 
call in, at his or their own expense, all coins made for him under this Agreement. 

In witness whereof His Highness the said Maharao Raja of Ulwur and A. B. on 
behalf of the Government of India have hereunto set their hands and seals the day 
and year first above written. 







Agreements 192 

Agriculture 87 

Ahirs ... 45 

Ahmad Khan 4,5 






Ahmad Baksh Khan 


Ajmir ... 



Akhe Singh 


7, 10 
20, 21, 23 

Alaora 147 

Alam Khan 6 

Altamsh ... ... ... ... 2 

Ammujan 22 

Appeals 184 

Appendix ... ... ... ... 171 

Aravali Series 181 

Aristocracy ... 119 

Armoury 118 

Army 107, 108 

Artillery 107 

Assessments ... 184 


Bdbar 5,9 

Baghor 133 

Baghora 138 

BahadarNahar 3,4 

Bahadarpur 140,159 

Bahlol Lodi 4 

Bahror 140, 141 

Banisrawab 143 

Bakhtawar Singh 19 

Balban 2 

Baleta 157 

Baldeogarh 169 

Balwant Singh 21 

Bambohra 138 

Bandoli 154 

Baniyas 43 

Banni Singh 21 

Bansur 157, 158 

Barah Stream 1 

"Barahkotri" 15,26 

Bards 124 

Barod 142 

Bas Kirpalnagar 137 

Bhangarh 167 

Bhindiisi 133 

Bijivar 14,25,140 

Birds, List of 37 

Bisaldeo 2 

Blair 25 

Blights 99 

Boating 118 

Border Passes 78-80 

Boundary Settlement 29 

Brahmins 43,123 

Buffaloes 106 

Building Materials 85 

Bullocks 106 


Cadell, Major 25 

Camels 106 

Camp Equipage 118 

Canal 90 

Carts 97 

Cattle 97 

Cavalry 107 

Census 37 

Chand 1 

Charaonds ... ' 153 

Charun Dasis 59,60 

Chauhans 121 

Chiman Singh 20,23 

Churaman 11 

Climate 128 

Coinage 110 

Communications ... ... 78,80 

Copper 87 

Council 116 

Country, Description of 27 

Courts 114-116 

Revenue ... 114 


Courts, Criminal 114,115 

Nazul 115 

Civil 116 

Cows 106 

Crops 87 

Rotation of 89 

Customs 102 


Dahri 92 

Damdama 134 

Dasa 13 

Dehli 2-4 

Dehra 157 

Dig 1 

Diseases 112 

Dispensary 48 


Education 73, 74 

Elephants 105 

Endowments Ill 

Expenditure 100-102 

Extradition Treaty 174 




Features of Country 


Firoz Shah 

Fiscal Divisions 


Floods . 






... 37,126,127 



Forests 31 

Fort Ulwur ... 4,6 

Fort Garrisons ... 107 

Foreign Service 48,49 


Galena 182 

Games 46 

Gardens 103 

Garhi 23 

Garhi Mamur 159 

Genealogical Tree 176 

Geology 177 

Gifts Ill 

Glass 86 

Gneiss 86 

Gobindgarh 144,145 

Grass 33,34 

Gujars 43 

" Gunijau Khana" 119 



"Habub" 48 

Hajikhan 7 

Hajipur... ... ... ... ... 159 

"HakMujrai" 48 

Hammirpur 159 

Hansi 2 

Hardeo Singh 25 

Harsoli 138 

Harsora ... 159 

Hasan Khan 5 

Hemu 7 

Hills 28 

Hindal 8 

Hindu Deities ... ... ... ... 52 

Horses ... ... ... ... ... 105 

Hoshdar Khan 18 

Humaiun ... ... ... ... 6, 7 

Hunting Establishment 119 


Impey, Captain ... 5,9 

Imtiyazis 108 

Indor 4,134,135 

Iron 80 

Irrigation ... 90-92,103,108,139 

Islam Shah 7 

Ismail Beg 11,12 

Ismailpur 138 

Isroda . 137 


Jadu ... 




Jai Singh 

Jallu ... 



... 122 



... 11 



Jewano 135 

Jhindoli 140 

Jhirka 3 

Jhirri 85,etseq. 

Judicial Cases .. 


Kadirnagar 140 

Kahan Singh 14 

KahfrPanthis 60-69 

Kairthal 135 

Kalas 44,45 

Kama 14,19 

Kankwdri 165 

Karauli 2 

Karnikot 140 

Katumbar 160, 161 

( 198 ) 


Khdnzadas 2,39 

Khizar Khdu 3,4 

KhoDariba 164 

Khora 14, 25 

Khushak Ram 17 

Kitchen (Eassoi) 119 

"KothiDasapra" 108 

Kotila 3,4 

Kucha wan 19 


Lachmangarh 162 

Lakdir Singh 23-25 

Lake 19 

Lakes 29 

Lala 13 

Lai Das 6 

LalDasis 53-59 

Land Claims 95 

Land Revenue 189 

Laswarree 19 

Lead Ore 83 

Library 119 

Lime 98 

Limestone ... ... ... Appendix 

Literature 74, 75 


Macheri 7,15,164 

Mahesh 2 

Mahtab Singh 25 

"Malbah" ... .: 46 

MalaKhera 157 

Malliks 10 

Mandawar 138, 139 

Mdndan 141,147 

Mandha 134 

Mangal Singh 24 

Maharaja ... ... ... 24 

Manisni ... ... ... ... 6 

Manjpur ... ... ... ... 162 

Manphul 24 

Manufactures 76-78 

Manure 89 

Maonda... ... ... ... ... 16 

Marble 83, 84. 108 

Masit 135 

Measures ... ... ... ... 88 

Menagerie 118 

Meos 37 

Meteorology ... ... ... ... 112 

Mewat 1, 2 

Mewathi 2 

Minas ... ... ,.. ... ... 41 

Minerals 31,86 

Mines 80-83 

Mint 110 

Muazinas 189 

r V.F: 

Mubarak ... ... ... ... 4 

Mubarakpur 153 

Municipalities 76 

Musalmans 70, 71 


11, 12, 17 






12, 13, &c. 


182, 183 

Nikach 153 

Nikumpa ... ... ... ... 6 

Nilkantn, Remains of 165 

Nimli 133 

Nimrana 121-123 

Nixon 23,24 

Nogawan 153 

Nurnagar 138 

NajafKhan ... 
Najaf Kuli Khan 
Nallah Beds ... 
Naruka Families 
Nickel . 


Occupancy Rights 96 

Ochterlony 21 

Officials ' 123 


Pahal 140 

Pai 14 

Paliva 14 

Panch Thikauas 15 

Para 14 

Partapgarh ... ... ... ... 168 

Partap Singh 15 

Patwarris 190 

Pensioners ... ... ... ... 108 

People, Condition of 44 

Perron ... ... ... ... ... 18 

Phalsa 140 

PipalRhera 143 

Ploughing 89 

Police 106 

Poor 44 

Population 50, 51 

Price Current 98 

Prithwi Pulj 2 

Public Works 108 

Pur 138 



( 199 ) 





Raja Bahadar ... 




1, 167 

20, 23 



Rajputs 39 

Ramgarh 144, 145 

Rampur 159 

Ramsewak ... 18, 19 

Ramu 21 

Ranthambor 15 

Reaping 88 

Religion ... 52 

Reni 164 

Rent-free Holdings ... 125 

Rent Rates 93,94,185 

Reserves of Game and Grass 103, 104 

of Wood ... 103 

Revenue 100-102 

Rewari ... 1, 2 

Rivers 28 

"Rozindars" 108 

Rupnarain 25 


Sahwal 21 

Saligram 21 

Salt 86, 103 

Saltpetre 86 

Sampradiyas 53 

Samuchi 161 

Sandstone 85 

Sanitation 112 

Sarehta 134 

Schools 48 

Settlement 184. 

Shahabad 133 

Sheodan Singh 23, 24 

Sherpur 153 

SherShah 7 

Shivites 52 

Shrines 71,72 

Sikandar Lodi 5 

Slates 85 

Slaves 124 

Soils 188 

Songs 45 

Soukar 161 

Stone, Prices of 85 

Streams 28 


Surajraal 15 

Survey 184 


Tahla 164 

Talao 164 

Talbirich, Hot Springs of 160 

Tapokra 134 

Tazims 122, 123 

Tenures 94, 95 

Thana 18, 25, 164 

Thana Ghazi 165,166,168 

Tijara 2,4,5,11,126-132 

Tillage 87 

Timurlang 3 

Toshakhaua 118 

Trade 78-80 

Treaties ... Appendix, 171, 172 

Trees 31-33 


Ulwur City 
Ulwur Tahsil 

1, 155-157 


Vaccination 113 

Vakils 97 

Vegetable Productions 31 

Vehicles Ill 

Vishnuites 53 







Wild Animals ... 


... 88 

128, 143, 190 
... 44 
98, 99 
34, 35 
104, 105 

Workshops 109 

Wrestlers ... ... 119 


Zanana .. 117 

University of California 


405 Hilgard Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90024-1388 

Return this material to the library 

from which it was borrowed. 

DEC 05 

Form L-8 





A 001 011 889 1